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Environment Revision Q & A
1. Explain and give examples of how three main religious teachings may impact upon issues
associated with the environment.
St Paul believed that humanity was exiled from the Garden of Eden, by God, into a `fallen world'. In
other words, everything we do as humans impacts and reflects upon the environment. Genesis says
that we either have dominion or stewardship over the environment. Therefore, we must either
control of look after the natural world. Finally, according to the Book of Revelation, the rapture will
end the world. Those who believe they will be saved can become complacent and do whatever they
want regardless of the impact on the environment.
2. Explain and show how three different secular thinkers have demonstrated different `shades
Naess adopted a secular approach to deep ecology. He advocated the reduction of humanity's
involvement in the natural world through reduction of the population to one billion and doing things
such as stopping economic growth. Lovelock followed his Gaia hypothesis, or `middling green'. He
said that the earth is self-regulating; it is designed to maintain some form of life. Peter Singer
followed a partially shallow ecology approach with his conservationist views. He believed the
environment should be cared for because exploitation of the environment would only cause
3. Explain with examples the difference between deep and shallow ecology.
Deep ecology looks at humanity as being responsible for the damage to the environment. It
therefore says that the way to resolve this is to reduce the impact humans have on the natural world.
For example, people living in small, self-sufficient communities instead of large cities. Shallow
ecology, by contrast, says that we should look after and conserve the environment to save it. For
example, people establishing nature parks.
4. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Ecosophy.
Considers everything to have intrinsic value
Says the social conscience should include the land as well as humans, animals and plants
Rejects thinking and rationality
5. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Lovelock's Gaia.
Appeals to religious people
Includes natural selection (through chance)
World united in self-regulating
Natural selection (Richard Dawkins and science)
Rejected by many scientists as being an unscientific theory