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Aims
· To investigate the role of friendship groups
and cliques in smoking behaviour of
adolescents.…read more

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Sample
· There were 461,14-15 year olds from 5
schools in North Carolina. This was picked
as it was seen as representative to the
rest of the USA.…read more

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Procedure
· Participants were asked to identify their three best
friends within school. They were also asked a
questionnaire on smoking behaviour at two points once
age 14 and then age 15. Information was also given on
mothers education. Information was then cross checked
by examining the amount of carbon monoxide in the
lungs. Only 15% were identified as current smokers.
· 87 cliques were identified. 42% of the sample were in a
clique. Those not in a clique were known as isolates,
there were 28%. Those who were friends with other
people but were not in a clique were known as liaisons
(29%).…read more

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Results
· 414/461 (89%) were non smokers. 59/87 cliques
were totally non smoking. 2/87 cliques were
totally smokers. The smoking rate of cliques
members was 11%. The overall smoking rate
was just 15.2%.
· Clique members showed high levels of
homogeneity (the same behaviour). This was
particularly true for all female, white cliques with
mothers of lower educational standard.…read more

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Conclusions
· Adolescents that smoke tend to associate with
other people that smoke.
· Clique membership tends to contribute more to
non-smoking behaviour than smoking behaviour.
· Membership of a non smoking clique supports
Social Learning Theory.
· This therefore does, and doesn't support SLT as
an explanation for substance misuse.…read more

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