electoral systems, voting

electoral systems

HideShow resource information
Preview of electoral systems, voting

First 368 words of the document:

Electoral systems
1. Majority Systems
Aim to ensure that the wining candidate achieves more than 50% of the votes cast in a
constituency, there are three main types.
Supplementary Vote System
Voters have only 2 preference votes.
Candidates win by gaining 50%+ of the vote
If no candidate wins 50%+ in the first ballot only 2 candidates are left in the ballot
the 2 with the highest first preferences.
The second preferences from the first ballot are redistributed.
Second preferences from the eliminated candidates are discarded and those for the
2 remaining candidates added to their total.
Which ever candidate has the greatest number of votes wins the seat.
Majority systems do not ensure that the election result reflects the proportion of votes caste
for each party in a general election. However they ensure that the candidate does enjoy
majority support in the constituency.
2. Proportional Representation
Proportional Representation systems do not work in single member constituencies as used
in the plurality and majority systems. In fact the larger the number of voters, the better.
Supporters of PR consider the whole country should be divided into multi member
constituencies and voters vote for their party not candidate of choice.
The aims are to
have seats that reflect the relative support for the party across the country as
accurately as possible.
Provide voters with real choice between parties and candidates.
List Systems
Helps achieve the first aim as seats are allocated to parties on the basis of the
number of votes caste.
Candidates gain seats in proportion to the party's vote starting from the top of the
list.
In closed list systems voters have no say in the order of the list. This is the system
used for European Parliamentary elections on the UK mainland.
In open list systems voters can identify individuals and indicate their preferences
and these are taken into consideration when allocating seats. Used in Italy and
Denmark
Single Transferable Vote (STV)
Helps to achieve the second aim as votes are given to candidates not parties.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The country is divided into multi member constituencies.
Parties provide as many candidates as there seats
Voters crank all candidates in order of preference or just 1 or 2 candidates if they
wish.
Seats are allocated according to a quota system
Q = Number of votes cast + 1
Number of seats in the constituency +1
If a candidate achieves the quota on the first preferences that person is elected.
If receives more than the quota the second preferences are redistributed
proportionally to other candidates.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Under the present system a government can gain clear majorities in the House of
Commons but enjoy only minority support in the country.
The FPTP system is grossly unfair if it fails to markedly under represent the number
of seats gained compared to votes cast. E.g. in 1997 the Conservatives gained
17.5% of the vote in Scotland and had no seats!
A majority government would more represent public opinion as it would enjoy over
50% support.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Government & Politics resources:

See all Government & Politics resources »See all resources »