# Edexcel topic 10 and 11 - p1b notes

Notes covering all of p1b for edexcel GCSE students

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• Created by: Georgia
• Created on: 22-05-12 15:01

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Physics Revision
Waves-Basics
1) AMPLITUDE-goes from the middle line to the peak
2) WAVELENGTH-a full cycle of the wave
3) FREQUENCY-how many complete waves per second e.g. 1Hz is 1
complete wave per second
4) PERIOD-the time taken for one complete wave.
Transverse Waves are:
1) Light and all other EM waves
2) Ripples on water
3) Waves on strings
4) A slinky wiggled up and down
Longitudinal Waves are:
1) Sound waves
2) Shock waves
- All waves carry energy without transferring matter
- Waves can be REFLECTED and REFRACTED
Sound Waves
1) Sound travels at various speeds in different substances
2) Sound doesn't travel in a vacuum
3) Your hearing can be damaged by excessive noise
4) Noise pollution
5) ECHOES are due to sound being REFLECTED
6) AMPLITUDE is a measure of the ENERGY carried by any wave
7) The FREQUENCY of a sound wave determines its pitch
8) MICROPHONES turn SOUND WAVES into ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
Ultrasound
Ultrasound is sound with a HIGHER FREQUENCY than we can hear it is used for
PRE-NATAL SCANNING of a foetus
Reflection
Angle of INCIDENCE = Angle of REFLECTION
Refraction

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Refraction is shown by waves in a ripple tank slowing down
2) Refraction is always caused by the waves changing speed
3) Sound waves refract as well
Digital and Analogue Signals
1) Information is converted into signals
2) Analogue varies but digital's either on or off
3) Signals have to be amplified:
Analogue signals lose quality
Digital signals stay the same
4) Digital signals are better quality
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
1) The seven types of EM wave travel at the same speed

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Gravity decreases quickly as you get further away
3) Planets in the night sky seem to move across constellations
4) Asteroids are a belt of rocks orbiting between Mars and Jupiter
5) Meteors are lumps of rock that crash down to Earth
6) Comets orbit the Sun, but have very elongated orbits
The Universe
1) Stars and solar systems form from clouds of dust
2) Our sun is in The Milky Way Galaxy
3) The whole universe has more than a billion galaxies