edexcel C2 topic 4

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  • Created on: 06-12-12 20:03
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Topic 4 ­ groups in the periodic table
Properties of groups:
Alkali metals are reactive, soft metals with low densities
Transition metals are unreactive and form coloured
Halogens are reactive non-metals that form coloured vapours
Noble gases are unreactive non-metals
Metallic bonding
Particles in a metal are held together by strong metallic bonds
which is when positive ions are held together by a sea of delocalised
There are strong electrostatic forces holding the particles together
so it requires a lot of energy to separate the particles. This is why
they have a high melting and boiling point.
All metals are malleable which means they can be hammered into
shape. This is because layers of atoms can slide over each other. This
makes metals useful for building bridges and car bodies.
Metals are good conductors of electricity due to the delocalised
electrons. This means metals can be used to make electrical wires.
Transition metals
Form coloured compounds ­ used in hair dyes and colours in

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They have high melting points ­ mercury is liquid at room
Less reactive than alkali metals
They have high densities
Malleable and good conductors of heat and electricity
Group 1 metals - alkali
The group 1 metals show a trend which they increase in
reactivity as one goes down the group.
They have low melting and boiling points. Lithium has the
highest melting point than the others. The melting point then
decreases as you go down the group.…read more

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Here the lithium fizzes slightly and becomes smaller until it
eventually disappears.
When sodium is added, it melts to form a ball that moves around
the surface. It fizzes rapidly and hydrogen may burn with an orange
flame before it disappears.
When potassium is added, it melts and floats. It moves very quickly
on the surface and the hydrogen ignite. The metal also sets on fire
with sparks and lilac flame.…read more

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A displacement reaction is when a reactive metal replaces a less
reactive one from a compound.…read more

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So they made an hypothesis about the composition of air. This
was tested and the noble gases were discovered.
The noble gases have a low boiling point. The boiling points
increase as you go down the group
Noble gases have low densities because they are gases and the
particles in gases are spread out. Helium has the lowest
density and the densities increase as you go down the group.…read more



DO HAVE ANY C1&C3 notes?? :)

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