Detailed Timeline of Architecture

Outlines the details of Doric and Ionic, with contextual information on each temple and the details needed for each temple. 

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Timeline ­ Architecture
Doric Order Ionic Order
Column rests on stylobate Column has a base
Capital is plain (echinus and abacus) Capital is a volute
Architrave is plain Architrave is divided into three bands
Frieze: triglyphs and metopes decorated with Frieze is continuously decorated with relief
relief sculpture sculpture or continuously blank
Masculine ­ West Feminine - East
Temple of Hera at Olympia (580):
Doric hexastyle
Early Doric temple:
8 supporting internal perpendicular walls in the naos to support building
8 supporting internal columns
Historian Pausanias wrote how the temple was in the process of petrifaction (limestone used
to replace original wood)
Original wood explains Doric order ­ triglyphs and metopes would have been the end of
wooden beams
No structural necessity to triglyphs
Stone is more appropriate ­ doesn't rot reflects immortal gods
Temple of Hera at Paestum (550):
Doric nonastyle
Thought to have been a Roman civic building (basilica)
Limestone covered with stucco (looks like marble)
Optical refinement of entasis (columns swell 2/3 of way up) makes seem straight
Early Doric temple:
Columns through centre of naos for support
Building has two entrances to the naos ­ could have originally held two deities

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Temple of Athena at Paestum (500BC):
Doric hexastyle
Limestone covered with stucco
Innovative features showing development:
Externally Doric but has eight ionic columns of pronaos
No opisthodomos
Mezzanine level (stairs)
Temple of Poseidon at Paestum (470):
Doric hexastyle
Peerless example of Doric order:
No structural irregularities (no Ionic)
No optical refinements (accentuates masculine Doric aesthetic)
No structural decoration (emphasises severe Doric aesthetic)
Temple of Zeus at Olympia (460):
Doric hexastyle
Originally largest in mainland Greece (before Parthenon) ramp used
Local limestone covered in stucco
Sculptural…read more

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Four internal ionic columns
Optical refinements:
Contrast with masculine and rugged aesthetic of Doric order
Columns have entasis to prevent `pinching'
Stylobate is curved to prevent `sagging' ­ runs through entire structure
None of the columns are straight ­ all lean inwards to prevent the opposite effect
Unusual: naos is split into two
Propylaea (437-432):
Designed by Mnesicles
Gateway to the acropolis ­ NOT a temple (marks boundary between religious sanctuary and
Athenian polis)
Resembles Doric hexastyle
Imposing nature emphasised as there is no sculptural…read more

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Designed by Ictinos
Doric hexastyle
High in Arcadian hills to thank Apollo for ending a plague
Internally revolutionary:
Naos lined with semi-engaged Ionic columns
An internal ionic frieze runs around interior of naos (Greeks VS Amazons and Centaurs)
North/South axis
Naos has second door, on east side, lets sunrise shine on statue of Apollo
Focus on inside not outside
Tholos of Asclepios at Epidauros (370):
Doric order - 26 columns
4th Century: function changed, helping individuals rather than gods
Internal Corinthian columns
Asclepios ­ god…read more


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