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V shaped valleys
· Upper course of river (lots of potential energy
and little kinetic energy)
· River erodes downwards (lots of vertical
erosion)
· Erosion forms gorge
· Valley side get weathered= become weak
· Rocks from weathered sides taken by river
· Over time wears down to create V…read more

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Interlocking spurs
· Natural feature in upper course
· Small hills interlocking like a zip
· Small stream in upland begins to erode land
downwards (vertical erosion)
· Small v shaped valley is formed
· Steep valleys begin to form (only vertical erosion)
· Due to obstacles river tries to weave
· More erosion takes place= small hills form
· Edges of hills= interlocking spurs…read more

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Knick points
· Either- lithological (caused by geological
variation) or erosional (fall in sea level)
· Represented by convex section in convex
profile
· Long profile reveals convex shapes-
­ Change in gradient
­ Features such as waterfalls, rapids and cascades…read more

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