Demographic changes in Britain since 1900

Revision for AQA AS Sociology Unit 1: Families and household. Covering:

  • Reduction in birth rates
  • Reasons for reductions in birth rates
  • Reduction in death rates
  • Reasons for reductions in death rates
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AS Sociology 28th April 2010
Families and Households revision
Demographic changes since 1900
REDUCTION IN BIRTH RATES
1870's women averaged 6 children
1960 ­ fallen to 2.7
Today ­ Average is 1.6
The age at which women have children has risen from 25 in the 1970s, to 30
today
REASONS FOR REDUCED BIRTH RATES
Infant mortality rate has fallen: More children survive so women have less
Introduction of Contraception in the 1960s: The pill
Expense of childhood: As a result of child centeredness
Women are focusing on careers: rather than becoming a housewife/mother
REDUCTION IN DEATH RATES
People are living longer than previously
Life expectancy for a woman: 80
Life expectancy for a man: 75
REASONS FOR REDUCED BIRTH RATES
Better medical care and improved medical knowledge: Introduction of the
NHS in the 1940's
Welfare state support for the elderly: Pension and help with transport
Diet & exercise: Improved knowledge ­ `5 A day'
Improved hygiene, sanitation and clean water: Less diseases
More births take place in hospital: Many women died previously during
childbirth
Jobs are less physical: Comfortable office environments pose no health risk
Nanny state: The smoking pan in public places
Chris Cartwright

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