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How strong was Germany in the 1920s?

Problems faced
Food / fuel shortages: British Blockade 1914-1919
Deaths due to starvation/ hyperthermia: 121,000 to 293,00o in 1918
Spanish flu: 20- 40 million killed
Inflation egg summer 1923 1,200 November 1923 428,000,000,000
Casualties: 6 million wounded 2 million wounded
Abdication of…

Page 2

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Its own Constitution
Article 48
Prop Rep: coalitions, splinter parties
State within a state
1919-23 there were 6 different governments, the longest lasting 18 months

No commitment to democracy
Authoritarian history
But first elections Jan 1919, 83% turnout, suggests faith in idea of democracy
76.1% of electorate voted…

Page 3

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Young Plan: reperations reduced to 1850 t0 be payed until 1988 ( but 5.8 million of 21 million voted against
this after right wing referendum `Law preventing the enslavement of German people))
Kellogg- Briand pact: 1926 sowed Germany was working with 68 nations. No war as national policy
Treaty of…

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Papen appointed due to Schleicher suggesting him to Hindenburg. Didn't hold a seat in the Reichstag. Many
of cabinet not members of Reichstag. Election called after Hitler only agreed to support gov if they allowed
SS and SA and held election
July 1932: Nazi's gained 37.3 % of votes. July…

Page 5

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`second revolution' threatened by Rohm
3 million members
June 1934
200 people killed including Rohm and Schleicher vote of thanks July 1934
Blomeburg vote July 1934

March 1933 regional parliament disbanded
Federal system dispanded 17 lander broken up by 1934
April made loyal party members Reich Goveners
Trade unions…

Page 6

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July 1933 given dictorial powers over Economy
Bilateral trade treaties: Romania Yugoslavia. Didn't use currency
Reichsmark Currency: Purchase raw materials this could only be used to buy german goods estimated it had
237 different values depending on country
Mefo bills: five years 4% interest successfully hid gov spending
By 1936:…

Page 7

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Social policies ( Volkgemeinschaft.)
Blut and Boden
Social Darwinism
Traditional values
Unification of German Volk
`Blot and Soil' purest Volk
Reich Entitled Farm Law 1933 tenure to medium sized farms
Reich Food Estate established in 1933 supervised all aspects of agricultural production
Successes: benefitted increase in prices…

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Aim: indoctrinate youth
Hitler: `your child belongs to us'
Schools: political unreliable and Jewish teachers removed. Women returned to home.
National Teachers League: 97% 1937 2/3 special Nazi training course.
P.E 15% of school time
R.E removed biology taught racial standards.
History taught german nationalism.
Elite schools to train leaders…

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Soviet Union to keep eastern polish territory
Stalin to hold elections
Germany divided into 4 zones
Allies to set up a commission on reperations
July 1945: Potsdamn
The four D's Democrizitation, Decentrilization, Denazification, demilitirisation.
German Polish border to the west
Stalin demanded $20 billion in reparations Western allies thought this…

Page 10

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Many lived in bomed houses
Those that didn't had to take refugees
Coal production collapsed
Germans using food rationing since beginning of war rations fell dramatically
From 1945 malnourishment
British had to ration between 700 ­ 12000 calories per day.
Bizone and Trizonia
May 1946 General Clay stopped…




Thank you for this :) My exam is tomorrow and it's helped a lot for a last minute checklist of knowledge

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