Democracy and Dictatorship Germany 1918-1969

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How strong was Germany in the 1920s?
Problems faced
Food / fuel shortages: British Blockade 1914-1919
Deaths due to starvation/ hyperthermia: 121,000 to 293,00o in 1918
Spanish flu: 20- 40 million killed
Inflation egg summer 1923 1,200 November 1923 428,000,000,000
Casualties: 6 million wounded 2 million wounded
Abdication of Kaiser, provisional government Erberts: SPD + left coalition signed
Treaty of Versailles's
Armistice 11 November 1918
Germany not invited to negotiations, `Diktat'
Loss of land,. Alsace-Lorraine
Anschluss forbidden
War guilt clause 231
Reparations ­ 1921 sum fixed at £6600 million
Saar to be under control of League of Nations until 1935, all coal production French
Army 100,000
6 battleships, crusiers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats 0 submarines.
No conscription
Rhineland demilitarised
League of Nations
13% territory 12% population, 15% agricultural production Iron- ore 48% Coal 15%
Threats from left
Spartacist revolt, January 1919. Wanted to overthrow provisional government and create Soviet Republic
3 days of savage street fighting, 1000 killed
Defeated by army and Freikorps
Continued violence and street disorder in Berlin, so first meeting of new government moved to Weimar, Feb
KPD enjoyed support of 10-15% of electorate, continuous protests, strikes, uprisings (but put down by army
and Freikorps)
Ultimately failed because of: bad co-ordination, poor leadership, concessions, repression
Threats from the Rights
354 assasinations by right: Matthias Erzberger, catholic ZP, signed armistice.
DNVP got 15.1% of vote in 1920 elections
By early 1920s there were about 70 small splinter nationalist parties
Political assassinations
Kapp Putsch ­ Wolfgang Kapp, 12,000 marched on Berlin Freikorps. Government fled 6 days Collapsed SPD
called for general strike which brought Berlin to a standstill
of 705 prosecuted only 1 was found guilty. Highlights power of judiciary and their lack of support democracy
General von Seckt had said `Troops do not fire on troop' yet was made Chief of the Army Command
Munich Putsch 1923: Kahr and Hitler, during a nationalist rally Hitler declared a national revolution 2,00
troops. Easily stopped by police 14 Nazi's killed. Hitler served 10 months of 5 year sentence for treason
minimum was 10. Ludendorff acquitted by being there by accident. Organised wrote Mein Kampf whilst in

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Its own Constitution
Article 48
Prop Rep: coalitions, splinter parties
State within a state
1919-23 there were 6 different governments, the longest lasting 18 months
No commitment to democracy
Authoritarian history
But first elections Jan 1919, 83% turnout, suggests faith in idea of democracy
76.1% of electorate voted for pro-democratic parties
But by 1920 support for democratic parties dropped significantly to 48%
Prices rose 1914- 1918 75% wages by 50 ­ 75%
144,000 million mark deficit
Printing money.…read more

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Young Plan: reperations reduced to 1850 t0 be payed until 1988 ( but 5.8 million of 21 million voted against
this after right wing referendum `Law preventing the enslavement of German people))
Kellogg- Briand pact: 1926 sowed Germany was working with 68 nations. No war as national policy
Treaty of Berlin: Treaty of Berlin in 1926 . Put pressure on Poland to give Germany frontier changes.…read more

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Papen appointed due to Schleicher suggesting him to Hindenburg. Didn't hold a seat in the Reichstag. Many
of cabinet not members of Reichstag. Election called after Hitler only agreed to support gov if they allowed
SS and SA and held election
July 1932: Nazi's gained 37.3 % of votes. July 1932 Papen declared himself Reich commissioner of Prussia,
this was unconstitutional and undemocratic. Turnout 84%. Only 39.5% voted for democratic parties. DNVP
lost votes and DDP and DVP lost all votes.…read more

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3 million members
June 1934
200 people killed including Rohm and Schleicher vote of thanks July 1934
Blomeburg vote July 1934
March 1933 regional parliament disbanded
Federal system dispanded 17 lander broken up by 1934
April made loyal party members Reich Goveners
Trade unions banned May 1933 took all funds leaders taken to concentration camps
Political parties June 1933 Socialists banned
Other major parties willing to dissolve themselves
July 1933 centre party gave up struggle
July 1933 Nazi's declared on legal party.…read more

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July 1933 given dictorial powers over Economy
Bilateral trade treaties: Romania Yugoslavia. Didn't use currency
Reichsmark Currency: Purchase raw materials this could only be used to buy german goods estimated it had
237 different values depending on country
Mefo bills: five years 4% interest successfully hid gov spending
By 1936:
Unemployment 1.…read more

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Social policies ( Volkgemeinschaft.)
Blut and Boden
Social Darwinism
Traditional values
Unification of German Volk
`Blot and Soil' purest Volk
Reich Entitled Farm Law 1933 tenure to medium sized farms
Reich Food Estate established in 1933 supervised all aspects of agricultural production
Successes: benefitted increase in prices 33-36 BUT 3% of German population went from country to town.
Regulations Reich Food estate resented.
Men Conscripted 1939.…read more

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Aim: indoctrinate youth
Hitler: `your child belongs to us'
Schools: political unreliable and Jewish teachers removed. Women returned to home.
National Teachers League: 97% 1937 2/3 special Nazi training course.
P.E 15% of school time
R.E removed biology taught racial standards.
History taught german nationalism.
Elite schools to train leaders 21 napolas 10 Hitler schools for boys
Hitler youth represented only 1% of the total of youth groups before 1933
Next 6 years structure and membership of the HJ peaked at 77.…read more

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Soviet Union to keep eastern polish territory
Stalin to hold elections
Germany divided into 4 zones
Allies to set up a commission on reperations
July 1945: Potsdamn
The four D's Democrizitation, Decentrilization, Denazification, demilitirisation.
German Polish border to the west
Stalin demanded $20 billion in reparations Western allies thought this was too much even though Americans
estimated the USSR's war costs added to 35.7 billion. Agreement made to take reperations from own zones.…read more

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Many lived in bomed houses
Those that didn't had to take refugees
Coal production collapsed
Germans using food rationing since beginning of war rations fell dramatically
From 1945 malnourishment
British had to ration between 700 ­ 12000 calories per day.
Bizone and Trizonia
May 1946 General Clay stopped deliveries of industrial goods after USSR stopped sending agricultural goods.…read more



Thank you for this :) My exam is tomorrow and it's helped a lot for a last minute checklist of knowledge

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