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Pre ­ War (Pre1914)

Pre War Politics

Wilhelm II was the German Emperor (Kaiser) in 1914.
Germany was marked as an autocracy with Wilhelm II (Kaiser) having complete control.
May 1981: "There is only one man in charge of the Reich, and I will not tolerate any other."

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Other industries such as steel, chemicals, engineering had also grown rapidly.
In a thirty year period Germany's international trade had quadrupled.
1870 ­ 1910 Germany's population went from 24 million to 65 million.
40% of this fastgrowing workforce was employed in the industry.

Pre War Military

o Beginning in the…

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Effect on German People

The supply of food declined and rationing was instituted.
Failure of the potato crop in 1916 led to turnips replacing potatoes as the principal
staple, "Turnip Winter."
"Germans ate dogs, crows, zoo animals and rodents, and even the frontline troops
were reduced to eating meagre portions…

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1. By the summer of 1917 Wilhelm told his former Chancellor (Bethmann Hollweg) that he
may as well abdicate as he held no real power.
2. September 1917, Hindenburg took Wilhelm's title of Supreme Warlord and the army
press agency sent out his portrait throughout the country.
3. "In the…

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The October Reform

Understanding the desire of the Allies for greater democracy within Germany before a peace could
be agreed. Ludendorff first pushed for a Constitutional Monarchy.

This would mean a civilian government would hold greater power while the Kaiser
remained the Head of State.
In the final month of…

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2. In October the Reichstag did demand the creation of a "strong government supported by
the confidence of a majority of the Reichstag."
3. However, the Reichstag did not play a central role in the events that followed and
actually met very infrequently in the last month of the war.…

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The Abdication of the Kaiser: November 1918


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