Dement and Kleitman 1957

This is a breif summary of the dement and kleitman study and how eye movement during sleep can maybe be related to dream activity. 

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Dement and kleitman (1957)
Sleep and dreaming
Background
Kleitman did an earlier experiment
Already shown a link between dreaming and REM
Aim
Investigate the relationship between eye movement and dreaming
3 hypotheses
Association between REM sleep and dreaming
Positive correlation between estimate of duration of dreams and
length of eye movement
Pattern of eye movement and context of dream
PPTS
9 adults (7m+2f) Volunteer sample
5 ptts studied between (6-17 nights)
Others (1-2 nights)
Method
Lab study sleeping lab
Arrived before their normal bedtime
CONTROLS
No Alcohol / Coffee
Had EOG's around their eye movements
Had EEG's to measure their brain activity
Slept in a dark room
Woke up at various time by a bell
Either during REM or Non-REM sleep
Average 5.7 times a night
Not told when they were going to be woken
Speak into a recorder
What they dreamt about
Estimate the length of their dream
Results
ALL ppts experienced periods of REM sleep each night
In REM sleep=
Mean percentage of dreams recall was 80%
Anomalies= people who didn't dream occurred at beginning of
night where not much REM occurs
In Non-REM sleep=
Mean percentage of dream recall was 7%
Anomalies= ½ people who dreamed in non-REM sleep came out of
REM 8mins ago
PTTS were able to better recall dreams in a REM sleep
Most people accurate in estimation of dream duration
15 mins after waking =78%

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Dement and kleitman (1957)
Sleep and dreaming
5 mins after waking = 88%
Eye movement:
Eye direction may be related to content of dream
Vertical = climbing ladders
Horizontal= throwing tomatoes at each other
Both = looking at close things
No movement= looking at far away things
Evaluation
Ecological validity
Lab experiment (not normal surroundings)
May have affected their sleep patterns
Method of waking ptts may have affected their dream
recollection
Generalisability
Small sample size
2 females so biased to men
Reliability
Demand characteristics not…read more

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