Coronary heart disease

An overview sheet on coronary heart disease, required in the F212 OCR biology specification.

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Bethany Cunningham
CORONARY HEART DISEASE
This is a multi-factorial disease: it can be cause by a high salt diet and a high fat diet, both lead to the same process:
atherosclerosis plaques.
HOW DOES AN ARTERY GET DAMAGED?
HIGH SALT DIET
When salt is consumed, it increases the content of salt in the blood. This causes a low water potential inside the
blood due to the added salt. Osmosis occurs due to the movement of water from a high water potential to a low water
potential. This leads to an increased volume in the blood due to the movement. This will cause a high pressure in the
blood because of the high volume, this leads to HYPERTENSION: increased pressure inside arteries causing cracks
in the blood vessels damaging the epithelium.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (referred to earlier) is the loss of sufficient blood flow to a tissue to allow it to carry out
its normal activity. Severe myocardial infarction may cause the heart to stop beating: cardiac arrest.
HIGH SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATS DIET:
Lipoproteins are made in the liver. They transport cholesterol as it isn't soluble.
PROTEINS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO:
Lots of proteins: high density lipoproteins (HDLs)
More lipid, less proteins: low density lipoproteins (LDLs).
LDLS
They take cholesterol and lipids to the tissue from the liver. They tend to deposit the cholesterol that they carry into
damaged artery walls.
Diets high in saturated days (red meat, eggs, cheese) may result in high LDL cells.
HDLS
They remove cholesterol from the tissues and take it to the liver.
Foods that result in high HDLs are plant derived food and fish.
ATHERSCLEROSIS

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Bethany Cunningham
Known as the hardening of the arteries) in the coronary arteries.
1. Cholesterol is deposited in the artery walls.
2. Macrophage (type of white blood cell) engulf the LDL.
3. They become enlarged, known as foam cells located in the artery walls seen as fatty streaks.
4. They are sealed with a fibrous capsule known as plaque.
5. The plaque stretches and the tunica externa expands.
6. The narrowed lumen is caused by an increased plaque and reduced elasticity.…read more

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