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The Congress of Racial Equality was founded in 1942 by a group of students in Chicago. Members
were mainly pacifists who had been deeply influenced by Henry David Thoreau and the teachings of
Mahatma Gandhi and the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign that he used successfully against
British rule in India.…

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Freedom Schools were often targets of white mobs. So also were the homes of local African
Americans involved in the campaign. That summer 30 black homes and 37 black churches were
firebombed. Over 80 volunteers were beaten by white mobs or racist police officers and three
men, James Chaney, Andrew…


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