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Diet: Carbohydrates, fats and proteins = release energy and to build cells. Mineral ions and
Metabolic Rate: The rate chemical reactions in cells are carried out. Affected = activity/ muscle to
Pathogens: Bacteria and viruses may produce toxins. Viruses damage cells where they reproduce.
White blood cells: ingest pathogens, produce antibodies and produce antitoxins (counteract
Antibodies: Specific antibodies kill a particular pathogen. Pathogens stimulate antibody
Semmelweis: Introduced hand-washing to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
Viruses: Live and reproduces using host cells. Can't use antibiotics.
Medicines: e.g. painkillers, help relieve symptoms of infectious disease, but do not kill pathogens.
Antibiotics: Specific medicines that cure bacterial disease by killing specific infectious bacteria.
Resistance: Over/inappropriate use of antibiotics increases the number of resistant bacteria
Mutations: Antibiotics/vaccinations may not be effective. Spread rapidly as people are not
Strains: Non-resistant pathogens die. Individual resistant pathogens survive and reproduce.
Prevention: Antibiotics only treat serious infections, so rate of development of resistant strains
New Antibiotics: Needed due to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
Vaccination: Introduce small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen into the body.
These stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. The body
can respond by rapidly making the correct antibody, as if the person had previously had the
Disinfectants: Petri dishes and culture media must be sterilised before use to kill all
microorganisms. Inoculating loops used to transfer microorganisms to the media must be
sterilised using a flame. The Petri dish lid secured with adhesive tape to prevent microorganisms
from air contaminating cultures.
Cultures : School = Incubated at 25 °C, to reduce the likelihood of growth of harmful pathogens.
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The Nervous System: Enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate their
Receptors: Cells that detect stimuli. Eyes = Light. Ears = Sound and Position (For
Tongue And Nose = Chemicals Skin = Touch, Pressure, Pain and to Temperature
Neurones: Pass information from receptors to the brain. The brain then coordinates the response.
Simple Reflex Action: Impulses from a receptor pass along a sensory neurone to the central
nervous system.…read more
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IVF: Inject Mother FSH and LH to stimulate the maturation of several eggs. The eggs are collected
from the mother and fertilised by sperm from the father. The fertilised eggs develop into embryos.
At the blastocyst or cleavage stage, one or two embryos are inserted into the mother's uterus .
New drugs: Extensively tested for toxicity, efficacy and dose:
Testing: Laboratory= cells, tissues and live animals. Clinical trials= healthy volunteers and patients.…read more
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Not Accepted: Challenged the idea of God, insufficient evidence, genetics were not well
Natural Selection: Random mutations, more live, reproduce, passed on to next generation
Gametes: Sex cells from which the offspring develop. Have 23 chromosomes each, half the usual.
Sexual Reproduction: Fusion of male and female gametes. This causes variety in the offspring.
Asexual Reproduction: Only one individual is needed as the parent. Produces clones.
Plant Clones: New plants can be produced quickly and cheaply by taking cuttings from older