Enzymes in Biology

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  • Created by: Han <3
  • Created on: 28-03-13 13:14
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  • Science Biology
    • Enzymes
      • when your body becomes too hot the ezymes in your body can't function properley so they become denatured.
        • Bile is a solution produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is an akaline solution which
        • Enzymes are bilogical catalysts substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are proteins folded into a complex shape that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place that these ssubstrate molecules fit together is the ACTIVE SITE.
        • The ezymes in the intestines work best at akaline conditions, but the food from the stomach is acidic which this is where bile helps out
    • Amylase > starch>sugars
      • Protease>protein>amino acids.
        • Lipase>lipids>fatty acids+glycerol.
        • Stem Cells
          • Embryonic stem cells can turn into any type of cell
            • stem cells may be able to cure many diseases= medicines already use adult stem cells to cure disease.
              • Scientists extract stem cells from very early human embryos and grow them.
                • stem cells can replace the faulty cells for example you could make beating heart muscles to help heart disease, insulin producing cells for diabetes and so on.
                  • stem cell research may be the last thing some people want 1) some people are against stem cell research because they feel that embryo life should not be used for experiments as they are potential life.
                    • In some countries stem cell research is banned but in the UK it is aloud as long as it follows strict guidelines.
          • stem cells may be able to cure many diseases= medicines already use adult stem cells to cure disease.
            • Scientists extract stem cells from very early human embryos and grow them.
              • stem cells can replace the faulty cells for example you could make beating heart muscles to help heart disease, insulin producing cells for diabetes and so on.
                • stem cell research may be the last thing some people want 1) some people are against stem cell research because they feel that embryo life should not be used for experiments as they are potential life.
                  • In some countries stem cell research is banned but in the UK it is aloud as long as it follows strict guidelines.
      • Amylase is found in the Slaivary galnds, pancreas and small intestines.
        • Protease is found in the stomach, pancreas and small intestines
          • Cell Division Meiosis
            • Gametes have half the usual number of chromsomes.
              • During sexual reproduction, two cells called gametes combine to form a new individual.
                • Gametes only have one copy of each chromosome this is so that you can combine one sex cell and still end up with the right number of chromosome.
                  • for example the human body has 46 chromosomes but gametes only contain 23 so when the egg and sperm join you get 46 again.
                    • The new individual will inherit features from both parents.
                      • so to sum up Meiosis they only produce half the normal number of chromosomes eg:GAMETES.
    • Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
      • Respiration
        • Aerobic respiration needs plenty of oxgen
          • Glucose+Oxygen>Carbon Dioxide+water+Energy
    • DNA
      • It stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
        • It is found in the nucleus of an animal or plant cells, in really long molecules,
          • These are called chromosomes
            • A  gene is a section of DNA it contains the instructions to make a specific protein.
              • Cells make proteins by stringing amino acids in a particular order.
                • DNA determines what the proteins the cell produces eg: heomoglobin,keritin
                  • then  then determines what type of cell it is : red blood cells and skin cells.
                    • mitosis makes new cells for growth and repair
                      • Body cells normally have two copies of each chromosome one from the mother and one from the father
                        • there are 23 pairs of chromosomes from a human cell!
                          • when a body cell divides it needs to make new cells identical to the original cell-with the same number of chromosome.
    • Cell Division Mitosis
    • Stem Cells
      • Embryonic stem cells can turn into any type of cell
      • Gregor Mendel
        • was an Austrian monk who trained in mathematics and natural history at the university of Vienna.
        • Mendel noted how characteristics in plants were passed on from  generations to the next.
        • The results of his research were published in 1866 and eventually became the foundation of modern genetics.
        • Mendel reached Three important conclusions
          • Hereditary units can be dominant or recessive - if an individual has both the dominant and recessive unit for characteristics the dominant will be expressed.
          • Characteristics in plants are determined by hereditary units.

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