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Conformity- The tendency to change behaviour or attitudes in response to the influence of
others or social pressure. The pressure can be real or imagined.

Kelman's 3 Types of Conformity

Compliance- Going along with others to gain approval or avoid disapproval. There is no
change in the person's underlying…

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Some felt their eyes/perceptions were wrong. Others conformed because they did not want
to stand out.


Asch found that as trials progressed, ps became increasingly anxious and
self-conscious regarding their answers and some reported feelings of stress-
protection of participants.
Deception- Ps were not fully aware of the aim…

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The minority could influence the majority through changes in behaviour/defections
seeing other people change their views can have a powerful effect on individuals own

In a study by Clark (1994) 270 college students were asked to role play the part of jurors and
read a summary of a court…

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experiment where they could be either guard or inmate. Prisoners have all committed crimes
and are in prison because they have been convicted, not because they are taking part in an
experiment. And prison officers have families they go home to, they do not work 24 hours a


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All learners were confederates
Ps were told it was a study to see if punishment affected learning (deception)
Teacher saw the learner strapped into an electric hock apparatus
Teacher was given mild shock to show the machine was real
Learner was in a separate room adjacent to the researcher and…

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Ordinary people are obedient to authority even when they must behave in an
inhumane manner
Suggest many crimes against humanity may be due to situational factors, rather than
dispositional (personality) factors
Ordinary people are capable

Situation Factor- The situation you are currently experiencing, eg. Holocaust

Dispositional Factor- Individual personalities


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Milgram showed that it's not the disposition of the people that causes the war but
that the obedience to authority can be a powerful factor in causing anyone to behave
in an out of character way

Bickman-Power of uniform study

New York
Asked strangers to pick up rubbish, stand on…

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would have to see their
emotions and face the
consequences directly.
Personality Factors People with authoritarian personality Some people are more likely
have a tendency to be extremely to disobey rules eg. Uniform
obedient. Those who were fully rules.
obedient scored higher on tests of 1/3 of people didn't obey…

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·argued that manager had been sacked because of offensive behaviour. Manager said that
he had been sacked for speaking out against high petrol prices

·participants were filmed during the discussion

·it was then found that the participant's views were irrelevant and the filming process
became a further set up in…

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Morals & Ethics

A moral philosopher found that people's beliefs about morals & ethics impacts on
behaviour. He argued that those whose values are based on moral principles were
more defiant.
Martin Luther King said `laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice'

Locus of Control





Really helpful revision notes for the PSYA2 Social Psychology topic.  Thank you (again) Emily!

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