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Social Influence
Types of conformity
Compliance; conforming to a groups opinion to gain approval but the groups views are not
analysed. Externally.
Internalisation; accepting others views because you believe the group is right and you are
wrong. Internally and externally.
Identification; conforming to others in order to be liked by…

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All ppts were mean and American in 50's
o People were scared to be different
Perrin and Spencer
Youths on probation were used as ppts and probation officers as confederates
Similar levels of conformity as Asch
Probation officers in charge of ppts freedom so likely to agree
o Wanted to…

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C- internalisation more likely because of in-groups and out-groups
Resisting pressures to conform
Desire for individualism; they may want to be like others sometimes and have the desire to maintain
a sense of own individuality
Can sometimes outweigh pressures to conform
Prior commitment; once people publically commit to an opinion,…

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Asked ppts after if they found it distressing and interviewed them a year later
o 84% glad to have been a ppt and 74% felt they'd learned something of importance
Lifton said physicians in Nazi death camps orgininally `normal people'
o Personalities altered by activities they were asked to perform…

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A justifiable cause by offering an ideology can increase obedience

Criticising Milgram's explanation
Monocausal emphasis; Mandel
Focusing solely on obedience for atrocities against humanity (Holocaust), Milgram ignored more
plausible explanations
Identified anti-Semitism as the primary motivation for actions during the Holocaust
Agentic shift; importantly applied to Holocaust
Milgram's ppts…

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Global vs. local

Implications of conformity research
When minorities become majorities
When a minority attracts enough supporters it becomes the majority and previous majority
becomes minority
Prislin and Christensen (2002) condlued losing the majority position can decrease satisfaction and
increase hostility and desire to exit the group
Groups with changed…


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