Slides in this set
What is the theory?
Emphasizes the importance of perceptions and thinking as well as
schemas. Assumes addiction and behaviour is due to irrational beliefs.
For example regular gamblers have the irrational belief that the odds
are not stacked against them and tend to over-estimate the extent to
which their behaviour can affect outcomes.
People purposely choose what they become addicted to.
- Somebody chooses something that they believe will help them with a
problem they have.
- E.g. alcohol is selected to improve confidence and relieve social
- Helps fulfil 3 major functions: Mood regulation, Performance
- This initiates the addictive behaviour…read more
Ainslie suggested that people are able to consider present and future
consequences but attach different weightings (pro's and cons) to
them. The greater being to the present. The attach too much weight to
immediate rewards for example, a cigarette where they are unable to
appreciate any long term effects of refusing. This preference for
immediate gratification has been called `cognitive myopia'.…read more
Self-regulation involves weighing up the relative importance of social
and physical factors as well as ones own personal goals when planning
Suggests that maintenance occurs because it deals with an existing
problem such as stress.
- For example a smoker will have a cigarette to reduce stress.
- However smoking has been suggested to cause higher levels of
stress in the long term.
- It has been said that a cigarette reduces the stress of the withdrawal
symptoms in the short term but increases it in the long run.…read more
positive Gottdiener et al - carried out meta analysis of 10 studies to
test one of the central features of this explanation, that substance
abuse disorders are associated with failures of ego control. He found
participants with substance abuse disorders showed significant
failures in ego control compared with a control group of non- addicts.…read more
· The cognitive and the learning theory · Cognitive is due to irrational beliefs,
both claim that addiction is a result of whereas biological is due to chemical
an individuals environment. reactions in the brain and learning
· None of the models account for all the states that addictive behaviours are
complex features of addiction. learnt. Each have their own
· None of the models account for explanation.
individual differences which results in
the outcomes being deterministic.…read more