Definitions and Cognitive model, treatments, and explanations of addiction.

Definitions in addiction

Cognitive model, treatments and explanations of addictions.

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  • Created on: 18-06-11 19:17
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ADDICTION ­ DEFINITIONS AND THE COGNITIVE MODEL.
DEFINITIONS USED TO FOCUS ON SUBSTANCE MISUSE. THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANISATION DEFINED IT AS A PERIODIC OR CHRONIC STATE OF INTOXICATION
PRODUCED BY REPEATED CONSUMPTION OF A NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC DRUG
ASSUMPTIONS IN THIS DEFINITION ARE THAT AN INDIVIDUAL CAN ONLY BECOME
ADDICTED TO SUBSTANCE AND ONCE SUBSTANCE ABUSE CEASES, ADDICTION CEASES
MARLATT ET AL MADE A NEW DEFINITION. ADDICTION WAS DEFINED AS A REPETITIVE
HABIT PATTERN WHICH INCREASES THE RISK OF DISEASE AND PERSONAL AND SOCIAL
PROBLEMS. ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY A SUBJECTIVE LOSS
OF CONTROL AND BEHAVIOUR CONTRIVES TO OCCUR DESPITE ATTEMPTS TO ABSTAIN
OR MODERATE USE. THESE HABIT PATTERNS ARE CHARACTERISED BY LONG TERM
GRATIFICATION AND DELAYED DELETERIOUS EFFECTS. ATTEMPTS TO CHANGE TYPICALLY
RESULT IN RELAPSE RATES.
THIS DEFINITION IS PREFERABLE AS IT DOES ACCOUNT FOR THE FACT THAT PEOPLE CAN
BECOME ADDICTED TO BEHAVIOURS, AND ALLOWS THAT INDIVIDUALS RELAPSE SO USE
OF SUBSTANCE CEASING DOES NOT MEAN THAT INDIVIDUAL CEASES TO BE ADDICTED.
THE FACTORS IN THIS DEFINITION ARE COMMON TO MOST ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS.
THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION NOW PREFERS THE TERM DEPENDENCE TO
ADDICTION. DEPENDENCE IS CHARACTERISED BY INTERMITTENT OR CONTINUOUS
CRAVINGS TO AVOID A DYSPHORIC STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL HAS A STRONG DESIRE
TO TAKE THE SUBSTANCE AND SHOW PROGRESSIVE NEGLECT OF OTHER FORMS OF
SATISFACTION. THEY FREQUENTLY DEVELOP TOLERANCE (THE DRUG PRODUCES A
DECREASED EFFECT AFTER REPEATED ADMINISTRATIONS) AND EXPERIENCE
WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR
COGNITIVE MODEL
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE COGNITIVE MODEL ARE
SELF REGULATION IS A KEY FACTOR IN ADDICTION PROBLEMS
AINSLIE SUGGESTED THAT ADDICTED INDIVIDUALS EXPERIENCE COGNITIVE MYOPIA:
THEY ARE ABLE TO PREDICT FUTURE CONSEQUENCES BUT PLACE MORE EMPHASIS ON
THE PRESENT. HOWEVER, COULD THIS BE EXPLAINED BY BEHAVIOURISM? DELAYED
REWARDS DO NOT PRODUCE SUCH STRONG RECURRENT BEHAVIOURS.
PEOPLE WHO PLACE EXCESSIVE RELIANCE ON EXTERNAL STRUCTURES ARE MORE LIKELY
TO BE ADDICTED.
ACCORDING TO BECK, ADDICTIVE BELIEFS PLAY A PART IN DEVELOPMENT OR INITIATION
OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS. INDIVIDUAL THINKS IT IS FUN AND EXCITING TO GAMBLE,
OR COOL TO SMOKE.
THIS THINKING CHANGES TO IDEAS SUCH AS "I NEED A CIGARETTE TO GET THROUGH..."
"TODAY HAS BEEN SO STRESSFUL, I NEED A DRINK..."
THIS IS A FREE WILL APPROACH AS BELIEFS CAN BE CHANGED AND INDIVIDUALS CAN
EXERCISE FREE WILL TO ABSTAIN FROM ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS.
THE COGNITIVE PROCESSING MODEL

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TIFFANY (1990) SUGGESTS THAT ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS ARE REGULATED BY
AUTOMATIC PROCESSING
ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS BECOME AUTOMATIC OVER A PERIOD OF TIME
IT IS DIFFICULT TO STOP AUTOMATIC BEHAVIOURS AND REQUIRES CONSIDERABLE
MENTAL EFFORT
POSSIBLE IF LIFE IS GOING SMOOTHLY, MORE DIFFICULT WHEN THERE ARE STRESSORS IN
THE ENVIRONMENT.
EVALUATION
THE FREE WILL APPROACH SUGGESTS THAT BEHAVIOURS ARE FREELY CHOSEN, THIS HAS
IMPLICATIONS FOR TREATMENT.…read more

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MOOD STATE CONTRIBUTES TO LIKELIHOOD OF GAMBLING. GAMBLERS REPORT THAT
THEY GAMBLE TO ESCAPE BEING DEPRESSED OR FRUSTRATED.…read more

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