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Geography: Coasts Revision
Key words
Weathering: the decomposition and disintegration of rock material in situ (its original place)
Erosion: the wearing away and removal of material by a moving force
Mass movement: Removal of cliff-face material under influence of gravity (e.g. Rock falls/slides/
Wave: ridge of water formed by…

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- E.g. Soft clay in Studland Bay has eroded, but not hard chalk of the Foreland

Wave-cut notches, wave-cut platforms
- Wave-cut notches formed by hydraulic action, abrasion and corrosion to base of cliff by
destructive waves
- Cliff no support collapses cliff retreat slope called wave-cut platform is formed…

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Depositional landforms
- Formed when material builds up faster than waves can move them away. Waves are
constructive (stronger swash than backwash). Destructive waves erode material so provide
sediment for deposition
- Spit- formed by material transported by LSD to the end of the beach in areas where coastline

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Hard rock Soft rock

Shape of cliffs High, steep Lower, less steep

Cliff face Rugged bare rock Smoother rock, evidence of slumping

Foot of cliff Boulders, rocks Sand, mud, few rocks

- Must be adapted to saline conditions
- Preserve and protect coastal landforms (see: Coral reefs, mangroves)


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- Pollution (e.g. At low tide, coral
exposed to air, so oil spills and toxic
- Sedimentation (blocks light for
- Tourists (coral souvenir, hotel
- Global warming (temperature
change coral bleaching as polyps
- Bottom trawling, cyanide fishing,
dynamite fishing, overfishing
(without fish, reef can't…

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Photo Type of defence Pros and cons

Sea wall- absorb and reflect Pros: protect base of cliff/buildings/land,
power of waves can prevent coastal flooding
Cons: Expensive to build and maintain,
erode over time, curved walls reflect
energy waves remain powerful

Groyne- wooden/concrete/ Pros: prevent movement of material, allow
stone barrier…

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Photo Type of defence Pros and cons

Cliff regrading and re-vegetation- Pros: work with nature
cliffs cut back gentle slope no sustainable, prevent cliff collapse,
slumping. Drainage pipes installed vegetation = new habitats for wildlife
remove excess water and prevent slip Cons: expensive/complex
planes. Ecomatting placed engineering needed, defences also…

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- Less sediment deeper Humber estuary inland more susceptible to flooding
- Defences aren't long term due to sea-level rising

Stakeholders' views
- Stakeholders: local council, taxpayers, residents, business owners, conservationists/scientists
- East Yorkshire council: want to limit impact (cost-benefit analysis), balance of everyone's
requirements (so sediment Humber must continue…

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How it's being managed
- Environmental: threatened vegetation (e.g. Marram grass) fenced off for regeneration,
marram grass replanted to stabilise dunes, footpaths monitored for erosion
- Social: boardwalks in place to encourage path-taking instead of trampling dunes, only 3 ways
to access beach sensitive areas far from tourist pressure, designated…


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