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Chemistry Key Points
Structure and bonding
Chemical bonding
Elements react to form compounds by gaining or losing electrons, or by sharing
Atoms of metals in Group 1 combine with atoms of non-metals in Group 7 by
transferring electrons to form ions that have the electronic structures of noble

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Structure and properties
Giant ionic structure
Ionic compounds have high melting points and they are all solids at room
Ionic compounds will conduct electricity when we melt them or dissolve them in
water. Their ions can then move freely and can carry charge through the liquid.

Simple molecules

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Developments in nanoscience are exciting but will need more research into possible
issues that might arise from increased use.

How much?
The mass of atoms
The relative mass of protons and neutrons is 1.
The atomic number of an atom is its number of protons (which equals its number of…

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Reversible reactions
In a reversible reaction the products of the reaction can react to make the original
We can show a reversible reaction using the (reversible reaction) sign .

Analysing substances
Chemical analysis is used to identify food additives.
Paper chromatography can be used to detect and identify artificial…

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The effect of concentration or pressure
Increasing the concentration of reactants in solutions increases the frequency of
collisions between particles, and so increases the rate of reaction.
Increasing the pressure of reacting gases also increases the frequency of collisions
and so increases the rate of reaction.

The effect of catalysts…

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Salts and electrolysis
Acids and alkalis
When acids are added to water they produce hydrogen ions, H(aq), in the solution.
Bases are substances that will neutralise acids.
Alkalis dissolve in water to give hydroxide ions, OH(aq), in the solution.
The pH scale shows how acidic or alkaline a solution is.…

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The extraction of aluminium
Aluminium oxide is electrolysed to manufacture aluminium.
The aluminium oxide is mixed with molten cryolite to lower its melting point.
Aluminium forms at the negative electrode and oxygen at the positive electrode.
The positive carbon electrodes are replaced regularly as they gradually burn away.

Electrolysis of…


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