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Chemistry Key Definitions
Ionisation energy-the energy required to remove an electron for a gaseous atom/mole
Relative atomic mass-Mean Mass of an atom compared with/relative to an atom of Carbon 12
Relative abundance-refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found
on a planet used in mass spectrometer reading worked out by a m/z reading.
Relative Molecular mass-The sum of each atoms relative mass in one molecule.
Atomic number-or the proton number is the amount of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number-the sum of the neutrons plus the protons(nucleons)it identifies isotopes.
Electronic configuration-The configuration/structure of which the electrons form (energy levels)
1s-2s-2p-3s-3p-4s...(energy levels = integer and sub levels=Characters) and so on, there is also the
Aufbau Principal that state the electrons fill the shells with the lowest energy first and Hunds Rules
stating that electrons prefer to occupy orbital's on their own and only pair up when there are no
spaces left in that sub level .In some examples of bonding it is useful to use the GCSE way of
Intermolecular forces-The forces in-between the atoms/ions of each molecule, of which determine
how a molecule reacts.
Intermolecular forces -The forces between one molecule to another of which determine the
physical properties like melting/boiling points.
Electrostatic force of attraction-The intramolecular force in ionic bonds, basically the attraction
between an positive ion and negative ion. The phenomena that happens when you bend water with a
Electronegetivity-The ability for an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond. Fluorine is the most
Empirical formula -Shows the simplest ratio of whole number atoms within a molecule.
Molecular formula-Shows the exact number of atoms of each type in a molecule
m/z-Mass over Charge or Mass Divided By Charge commonly used in representation of abundance in
mass spectrometer readings. It is used by a computer to work out the mass of each ion in a mass
Isomerism-When Compounds have the same molecular formula but different structural formula.
Cation/Anion-Positive Ion / Negative Ion
Nomenclature-The naming of organic compounds according to an agreed set of rules.
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Polar covalent bonding-is when the electrons are uneven shared in-between a bond making the
more electronegative atom delta minus meaning it's partially negative. This causes the dipole-dipole
Coordinate bond-or Dative Covalent Bonds are when one atom in the bond has one or more lone
pairs of electrons (so one of the atom contributes all of the electrons in the bond) and the other has a
Mole Mass number of atoms in grams (6.…read more
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Dipole-dipole forces-there's temporary dipole forces (van der walls) and there's the intermolecular
forces permanent dipole-dipole caused by polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds.
Metallic bonding-Metals lose all of their outermost electrons which become delocalised and form
an electron sea, so the variety's of strength in metallic bonding is due to different metals having
different densities of electron seas.
States of Matter-Solids (really closely packed molecules, fixed shape, low energy, vibrate around a
fix position and they have a highly ordered structure.…read more