Chemistry C2 AQA Higher Tier Revision Notes

Hey! These are my notes for the Chemistry C2 Exam. I did my exam using these notes in June and got full marks, so feel free to use them! There may be a couple of mistakes with my phrasing of points, and they may not be in sufficient detail for your own usage. 

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 14-11-10 14:28

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Page 1

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

C2 1: Structures and Bonding.
Atomic Structure:

An atoms nucleus contains protons and neutrons.
Electrons orbit the nucleus.
Same number of electrons and protons.
Electrons have a negative charge.
Protons have a positive charge.
Neutrons have no charge ­ neutral.
Overall: positive charge…

Page 2

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

Different energy levels can only hold a certain number of electrons;
o First shell = 2 electrons
o Second shell = 8 electrons
o Third shell = 8 electrons.
Elements with a full outer shell are unreactive and stable ­ noble gases.

Page 3

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

The force exterted by an ion on the other ions in the lattice acts equally in all directions ­ held
tightly together.
Structure is regular ­ ions packed neatly together
We can represent ionic bonds by dot and cross diagrams -

Page 4

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

Simple molecules:

When two non metals react to form compounds they share electrons in their outer shells
covalent bonds
Low melting and boiling points usually, liquids or gases at room temperature or solids
with low melting points
Covalent substances are strong held tightly…

Page 5

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

Type Relative mass

Proton 1

Neutron 1

Electron Negligible

Total number of neutrons and protons is the mass number
Mass number ­ atomic number = number of neutrons, carbon's mass is 12 and its atomic
number is 6. 12 ­ 6 = 6…

Page 6

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

We can use the relative atomic mass (Ar) of element and the relative formulae mass (Mr) of
compounds to help us work out the percentage of an element in a compound.


1. Write down the formula of the compound
2. Using the…

Page 7

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

We from this we know that the simplest ratio of atoms is: AlCl3

Equations and calculations:

Chemical calculations can be very useful, but the equation must be balanced in order to be
totally useful.

Making as much as we want:

Rather than talking…

Page 8

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

To prevent this we have the ammonia removed by cooling and liquefying as soon as it is
We can then recycle any hydrogen and nitrogen that is left.

N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
C2 4 ­ Rates of reaction.

How fast?


Page 9

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

High concentration = more collisions
Dissolved particles are closer together therefore more collisions happen in an area of
Concentration is measured in moles per cubic decimetre ­ mol/dm3
Remember: increasing concentration or pressure does not increase the energy with which
the particles…

Page 10

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Chemistry C2 revision: Exam 26th May 2010

Neutralisation between acids and alkalis is exothermic
Thermal decomposition and photosynthesis are endothermic

C2 6 - Electrolysis

Electrolysis ­ the basics:

Electrolysis means `splitting up using electricity'
In electrolysis we use an electric current to decompose a substance made of ions into


Former Member

Really good. Good use of diagrams and well organised. However, too make it really engaging and to make it more effective when you or others revise from it use colours and questions to get the people more involved. Well done and thanks for sharing your notes :)!x

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