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Carbonate ions: add dilute hydrochloric acid ­ if it fizzes and turns cloudy, substance contains carbonate
· Halide ions: add dilute nitric acid then silver nitrate solution. Chloride ions ­ white precipitate ; Bromide
ions ­ cream precipitate ; Iodine ions ­ yellow precipitate
· Sulfate ions ­ Add dilute hydrochloric acid then barium chloride solution. If white precipitate forms,
sulfate ions are present.
· Acid + alkali -> salt + water
· Equilibrium ­ rate of forward reaction = rate of backward reaction
· Alcohols with smaller molecules like ethanol react with water to form neutral solutions. Organic
substances dissolve in alcohols.
· Alcohols burn in air. When combustion has taken place, carbon dioxide and water are produced.
(ethanol + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water)
· Sodium + alcohol -> hydrogen
· Alcohol + potassium dichromate -> oxidised to carboxylic acid
· Carboxylic acids and esters + water -> pH less than 7 (acidic)
· Carboxylic acid + carbonate -> carbon dioxide + salt + water
· Alcohol + carboxylic acid -> (using acid catalyst) ester such as ethyl ethanoate + water
· Strong acids ­ in aqueous solutions, ionise completely
· Weak acids ­ in aqueous solutions, do not ionise completely (higher pH and react more slowly than
strong acids)…read more


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