Chemistry 1a and 1b

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Rocks and Building
All Substances made of atoms - central Nucleus of Protons and neutrons and
surrounded by electrons in `shells'
The simplest substances only contain one kind of Atom, and are called
Atoms of each element have their own chemical Symbol e.g. NaSo4/H2O/FE
More than one element combined form compounds: their atoms; give, take or
share electrons so they bond together.
The formula of substances shows the type of atom it contains and how many
have combined.
In chemical reactions, the mass of the reactants is always the same as the
mass of the products.
Chemical equations are balanced. There always has to be the same number
of each type of atom on each side.
Limestone if used as a building material and to make; quicklime, slaked lime,
cement and glass.
Heating metal carbonates produces metal oxides and carbon dioxide gas.
When heated strongly calcium carbonate decomposes to make quicklime (Calcium
oxide, CaO and Carbon Dioxide);
Calcium Carbonate Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
CaCo3 CaO + CO2
This is done on a large scale in Lime kilns
10.0g of magnesium carbonate was heated strongly this results in 10.0g of
the product is formed; this is because the mass of the reactants is equal to the mass
of the products.
Adding water to quicklime produces slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), which
is slightly soluble in water. It reacts with CO2 to form calcium carbonate which is
insoluble in water.
Mortar is made by mixing slaked lime with sand and adding water, when CO2
reacts with the slaked lime in the mortar it forms calcium carbonate and sets hard.
Limestone is mixed with clay and heated strongly, the product is powdered.
Mixing cement with sand, stones and crushed rock then adding water.
Made with cement and sand (will set in wet conditions)
Made from Limestone, sand and sodium carbonate

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Rocks and Metals
We get metals from ores which are dug up from earth
Most metals have to be extracted from their ores using chemical
reactions which can use large amounts of energy.
A metal mixed with other elements is called an Alloy
Alloys have different properties to pure metals and can be designed
for specific uses
Iron, copper, gold, aluminium, titanium and their alloys have many
Recycling, and finding new ways of extracting metals helps to
conserve energy and resources.…read more

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Aluminium and Titanium
Low densities compared to other metals
Resist corrosion, titanium is strong at high temperatures
Extracting these are expensive because it involves electrolysis and high
temperatures; Titanium: Displaced by sodium
Recycling saves resources and energy needed to extract the metal from its
ore.…read more

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The products of cracking; Alkanes ­ used as fuels
Alkenes- to make other chemicals and polymers
Alkenes are unsaturated with a general formula CnH2n and contain a double
carbon-carbon bond.
Alkene molecules are monomers that can add together to make polymers.
Polymers with different properties can be made using different starting
materials and different reaction conditions; which allows new polymers to
be made for specific uses.
Polymers that are not biodegradable can lead to problems with waste
disposal.…read more

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Vegetable oils can be extracted from nuts, seeds and fruits by pressing (followed
by removal of water and impurities) or distillation (produces a mixture of oil and
Can provide lots of energy or fuels
Some vegetable oils are unsaturated contain carbon-carbon bonds ­ can
react with bromine and iodine.
If there are several double bonds in molecule they are called
Cooking with Vegetable Oils
When foods are cooked with oil the energy content, flavour, colour, and texture of
the food are changed.…read more

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Biodiesel is renewable and causes less pollution. ­ no sulphur dioxide.
C02 is reabsorbed by the plants
The changing world
Structure of the Earth
Earth layers; Crust, Mantle and Core
6400km in radius
Surface is thin crust between 5km ­ 70km- thinnest around oceans.…read more

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When burning fossil fuels release CO2 that had been absorbed many years
As amount of CO2 increased more of it dissolves in the oceans.…read more


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