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Rocks and Building
All Substances made of atoms - central Nucleus of Protons and neutrons and
surrounded by electrons in `shells'
The simplest substances only contain one kind of Atom, and are called
Atoms of each element have their own chemical Symbol e.g. NaSo4/H2O/FE
More than…

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Rocks and Metals
We get metals from ores which are dug up from earth
Most metals have to be extracted from their ores using chemical
reactions which can use large amounts of energy.
A metal mixed with other elements is called an Alloy
Alloys have different properties to pure metals…

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Aluminium and Titanium
Low densities compared to other metals
Resist corrosion, titanium is strong at high temperatures
Extracting these are expensive because it involves electrolysis and high
temperatures; Titanium: Displaced by sodium
Recycling saves resources and energy needed to extract the metal from its

Crude Oil
Crude oil is…

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The products of cracking; Alkanes ­ used as fuels
Alkenes- to make other chemicals and polymers
Alkenes are unsaturated with a general formula CnH2n and contain a double
carbon-carbon bond.
Alkene molecules are monomers that can add together to make polymers.
Polymers with different properties can be made using different…

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Vegetable oils can be extracted from nuts, seeds and fruits by pressing (followed
by removal of water and impurities) or distillation (produces a mixture of oil and
Can provide lots of energy or fuels
Some vegetable oils are unsaturated contain carbon-carbon bonds ­ can
react with bromine and iodine.…

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Biodiesel is renewable and causes less pollution. ­ no sulphur dioxide.
C02 is reabsorbed by the plants

The changing world

Structure of the Earth
Earth layers; Crust, Mantle and Core
6400km in radius
Surface is thin crust between 5km ­ 70km- thinnest around oceans.
Mantle under crust 3000km thick, entirely…

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When burning fossil fuels release CO2 that had been absorbed many years
As amount of CO2 increased more of it dissolves in the oceans.


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