Chemistry 1 Revision Booklet

This booklet comes from Bangor University and contains clear, concise notes on the C1 exam. It is aimed at the WJEC spec but will be useful for most boards.

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Contents
Elements 2
Physical Properties 3
The Periodic Table- Mendeléev 4
Compounds 5
The Ionic Bond 6
Formulae 7
Metals 8
Displacement Reactions 9
The Blast Furnace 11
Electrolysis of Lead (II) Bromide 12
Electrolysis - Aluminium 13
Uses of Metals 15
Nano Science 16
Non-metals - Electrolysis of water 18
Uses of non-metals 20
Fluoridation of water supply 21
Acid Reactions 23
Method for preparing crystals 27
Fuels ­ Crude Oil 28
Cracking 30
Making Plastics(Polymerisation) 31
Properties of Plastics 31
Tectonic Plates - Wegener 32
The Atmosphere 35
Global Warming 37
Acid Rain 38
www.bangor.ac.uk GCSE Science: Chemistry 1 1

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Elements
Element
Elements are the building blocks of all substances.
They cannot be broken down into simpler substances
by chemical means
+ + +
Na Na Na
+
Na
+
Na Na
+ An Element contains only one type of atom
+ + +
Na Na Na
Each atom has negatively charged electrons orbiting a
Atom positively charged nucleus
Electron
(negative)
Nucleus
(positive)
Shell
Proton
Protons are positive, neutrons
are neutral (no charge).…read more

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Metals Physical Properties Non-Metals
Does not
Conduct conduct
www.bangor.ac.…read more

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Periodic Table
Scientists as far back as 1817 found patterns in the reactivity
of elements; however it was Mendeléev (1869) who first
arranged the elements in a layout recognisable as a Periodic
Table.
is due to Mendeléev
He placed the elements into 8 groups, in each group elements
reacted similarly. Elements were arranged according to
1. Increasing atomic mass (top number)
2.…read more

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Compounds Substance that contains two or more elements joined together chemically
Number of elements = 2
Formula Hydrogen
H2O
H2O Elements
Atoms
Oxygen
H H
2 Hydrogen
O
1 Oxygen
Number of atoms = 3
Compound Formula No. of No.…read more

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The Ionic Bond
Ionic Compounds
When a chemical reaction takes place new bonds are formed. Ionic compounds
form by the transfer of electrons from metal to non-metal atom. Charged
particles called ions are formed
e.g.
When sodium chloride (NaCl) forms, one electron is transferred from sodium to
chlorine.…read more

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Using ions to create formulae
Lithium = Li+ chloride = Cl-
Sodium = Na+ Magnesium = Mg2+ oxide = O2- bromide = Br-
Potassium = K+ Calcium = Ca2+ sulfide = S2- iodide = I-
Sodium Magnesium Lithium Magnesium
Chloride Oxide Oxide Chloride
Li+ O2- Mg2+ Cl-
Na+ Cl- Mg 2+
O 2-
Li+ Cl-
Ions cancel Ions cancel
Ions cancel Ions cancel
NaCl MgO
Li2O MgCl2
Hydroxide= OH- Sulfate= SO42-- Carbonate = CO32-- Nitrate = NO3-
Sodium Magnesium Quick method
Hydroxide Hydroxide
Mg2+ OH-…read more

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Extraction of Metals
Ores ­ Metals are found in compounds in rocks which make up the Earth's crust, these
are called ores
Ore Formula Metal extracted
Bauxite Al2O3 Aluminium
Haematite Fe2O3 Iron
Extraction is the term for getting pure metal out of the ore; there are two methods of
extracting metals which depend on their reactivity
Reduction is the process of removing oxygen from the ore using carbon
Electrolysis is the process of using electricity to extract a metal
Reactivity Series ­ metals are placed…read more

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Displacement Reactions
Reduction is the loss of oxygen from a compound
Oxidation is the gain of oxygen to form a compound
Magnesium and copper oxide Mg + CuO MgO + Cu
oxidation
Heat
Magnesium + copper oxide magnesium oxide + copper
reduction
Blast Furnace Reaction
Fe2O3 + 3CO 3CO2 + 2Fe
Iron oxide and carbon monoxide
oxidation
iron oxide + carbon carbon monoxide + iron
Heat
reduction
The Thermite Reaction Fe2O3 + 2Al Al2O3 + 2Fe
oxidation
Iron oxide + aluminium aluminium oxide + iron…read more

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Displacement Examples
Iron and copper chloride Fe + CuCl2 Cu + FeCl2
iron + copper chloride copper + iron chloride
iron is more reactive than copper, as a result iron displaces copper
copper and silver nitrate* Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2
copper + silver nitrate silver + copper nitrate
copper is more reactive than silver, as a result copper displaces silver
zinc and copper sulphate* Zn + CuSO4 Cu + ZnSO4
zinc + copper sulfate copper+ zinc sulfate
zinc is more reactive than copper,…read more

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