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Page 1

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Contents
Elements 2
Physical Properties 3
The Periodic Table- Mendeléev 4
Compounds 5
The Ionic Bond 6
Formulae 7
Metals 8
Displacement Reactions 9
The Blast Furnace 11
Electrolysis of Lead (II) Bromide 12
Electrolysis - Aluminium 13
Uses of Metals 15
Nano Science 16
Non-metals - Electrolysis of water…

Page 2

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Elements


Element
Elements are the building blocks of all substances.
They cannot be broken down into simpler substances
by chemical means
+ + +
Na Na Na
+
Na
+
Na Na
+ An Element contains only one type of atom
+ + +
Na Na Na



Each atom has…

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Metals Physical Properties Non-Metals


Does not
Conduct conduct




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Electricity Electricity
Non
Metals
Conduct Does not
Heat conduct
heat



High
Melting point Low




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Boiling point Melting point
Boiling point
Metals




Malleable Can be hammered into sheets Not malleable




Ductile Can be pulled into wires Not ductile…

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Periodic Table


Scientists as far back as 1817 found patterns in the reactivity
of elements; however it was Mendeléev (1869) who first
arranged the elements in a layout recognisable as a Periodic
Table.
is due to Mendeléev
He placed the elements into 8 groups, in each group elements
reacted similarly.…

Page 5

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Compounds Substance that contains two or more elements joined together chemically




Number of elements = 2

Formula Hydrogen
H2O

H2O Elements

Atoms
Oxygen


H H
2 Hydrogen
O
1 Oxygen

Number of atoms = 3




Compound Formula No. of No. of atoms
elements
Sodium Chloride NaCl 2 2 (1 Na,…

Page 6

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The Ionic Bond




Ionic Compounds

When a chemical reaction takes place new bonds are formed. Ionic compounds
form by the transfer of electrons from metal to non-metal atom. Charged
particles called ions are formed

e.g.
When sodium chloride (NaCl) forms, one electron is transferred from sodium to
chlorine. This will…

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Using ions to create formulae

Lithium = Li+ chloride = Cl-


Sodium = Na+ Magnesium = Mg2+ oxide = O2- bromide = Br-


Potassium = K+ Calcium = Ca2+ sulfide = S2- iodide = I-


Sodium Magnesium Lithium Magnesium
Chloride Oxide Oxide Chloride

Li+ O2- Mg2+ Cl-
Na+ Cl- Mg…

Page 8

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Extraction of Metals

Ores ­ Metals are found in compounds in rocks which make up the Earth's crust, these
are called ores

Ore Formula Metal extracted
Bauxite Al2O3 Aluminium
Haematite Fe2O3 Iron



Extraction is the term for getting pure metal out of the ore; there are two methods of
extracting…

Page 9

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Displacement Reactions


Reduction is the loss of oxygen from a compound

Oxidation is the gain of oxygen to form a compound

Magnesium and copper oxide Mg + CuO MgO + Cu



oxidation

Heat
Magnesium + copper oxide magnesium oxide + copper


reduction



Blast Furnace Reaction
Fe2O3 + 3CO 3CO2 +…

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Displacement Examples


Iron and copper chloride Fe + CuCl2 Cu + FeCl2

iron + copper chloride copper + iron chloride

iron is more reactive than copper, as a result iron displaces copper


copper and silver nitrate* Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2

copper + silver nitrate silver + copper nitrate…

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