chapter 9 -10 physics A, A2 notes

end of chapter 9 simplified and some of chapter 10. Experiments not explained in detail.
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Physics notes chp9-10
Half life of a radioactive isotope: time taken for the mass of the isotope to decrease to half the initial
mass/ number.
Mass remaining: 0.5^n x mass
where n is the number of half lives.
Activity of radioactive isotope (Bq) : number of nuclei of the isotope that disintegrate per sec.
Activity is directly proportional to mass, corrected count rate( C) and number. ( N)
Power of source or energy, or energy transfer from radioactive source: AE
Radioactive decay:

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Carbon dating ­ in living things. Carbon ­ 14 ­ isotope.
C-14 formed in atmosphere by cosmic rays knocking out neutrons from nuclei.
Argon dating ­ rocks trap argon gas. Happens when nucleus captures inner shell electron.
by electron capture of beta minus decay.…read more

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Radioactive tracers ­ tracers follows path of substance through a closed system.
Radioactive tracer in isotope:
Has half life stable enough for necessary measurements to be made and short enough to
decay after use.…read more

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Light isotopes ( Z: 0-20)- stable nuclei follow N=Z line
When Z>20, N:Z increases. Extra neutrons help bind nucleons together with electrostatic repulsive
forces.
Alpha emitters ( Z=60) ­ more neutrons than protons ­ unstable because of strong nuclear force
between nucleons can't overcome electrostatic forces between protons = alpha decay.
Beta minus emitters ­ neutrons rich isotopes, more stable than alpha emitters, still unstable.…read more

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Nuclear density
A is the mass number of the isotope/ atom.
u ( MeV) and r0 are constants that are given on the formula sheet.…read more

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