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Cell Structure The Golgi is a series of flattened layers of plate- They are two hollow cylinders are 90degrees to
like membranes. each other.
Cells are made up from organelles. The proteins made by the RER are pinched off
from the cavities on the RER. This forms a The Cellulose Cell Wall:
The Nucleus: membrane that surrounds them. Cellulose is a carbohydrate polysaccharide made
Surrounded by a porous double membrane, also The whole structure is called a vesicle and will from glucose and provides strength and support
known as the nuclear membrane / envelope. move through the cytosol to fuse with the to the plant cell wall.
The nucloplasm contains the chromatin, which membrane of the Golgi. They can join together to form cellulose
are DNA coils attached to proteins. microfibrils.
Chromosomes are formed from condensed In the cavity in the Golgi, the vessel proteins are It also allows water to move by osmosis from cell
chromatin during cell division. modified for export from the cell by having a to cell.
Nucleolus is a small body within the nucleus. carbohydrate attached.
At the end of the Golgi the product is pinched off The Plasmodesmata:
The nucleus contains the chromosomes and so that it can move through the cytosol to the cell These are narrow channels that act as
controls cellular activities. surface membrane. intercellular bridges to allow communication and
The nucleus contains RNA and the nuclear transport of materials between plant cells.
membrane pores allow the transport of RNA and The vesicle fuses with the cell surface They connect the plant cells and are specialized
nucleotides. membrane, releasing the product. If the vesicle channels that allow the intercellular movement of
contains digestive enzymes it is called a lyosome water and nutrients.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum: which are used during endocytosis or to break
The ER is a system of flattened cavities lined by a down old organelles. The Vacuole:
thin membrane. Large vacuoles can only be found in plant cells,
The ER is the site of the synthesis of many Lyosomes: but animal cells can contain small, temporary
substances within the cell and provides the right Lyosomes are also used to digest intracellular vacuoles.
environment for this to take place. material such as bacteria which has been Plant vacuoles are filled with a fluid that contains
ER cavities also function as a transport system engulfed by the white blood cell and so made chemicals such as cell sap and glucose.
where substances move from one part of the cell harmless by the lyosomes. Vacuoles are bound b a single membrane called
to another. the tonoplast.
Mitochondria: They also provide an osmotic system to support
There are tow types of ER: These are responsible for the aerobic respiration plant tissue since they contain water.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Rough and produce chemical energy called adenosine
Endoplasmic Reticulum. triphosphate (ATP). The Chloroplasts:
The SER has a smooth surface and the RER has Mitachrondria have a double membrane, an outer Chloroplasts have a double membrane, and they
a rough surface. and inner membrane. contain a fluid called stroma which contains DNA,
SER is where lipids and steroids are made, so The inner membrane is folded to form cristae starch, lipids and ribosomes.
there are plenty of these in a liver cell. which increases the surface area so that The stroma also contains thylakoids, which are
respiratory processes can occur. flattened sacs which are stacked together to form
The RER looks rough because it is studded with There is a fluid in-between the two membranes. a granum.
ribosomes. These are made of RNA and proteins The matrix of the Mitachrondria is a site of many This increases the surface area for trapping light
and are the site of protein synthesis. chemical compounds. for photosynthesis.
There are many free ribosomes within the Chlorophyll can be found in the thylakoids.
cytoplasm as well, which aid in the protein The Centrioles:
synthesis. These organelles are not found in plants, but in
The proteins that are synthesised move to the animal and protoctistic cells in an area called the
cavities of the RER to be transported. centrosome.
In cell division the centrioles divide and move to
The Golgi Apparatus / Body: the poles of the cell to form the microtubules of