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Niki Nubi




Buffers in biological systems


Buffers are designed to resist changes in pH. They should not break down under working
conditions. They should be stable and not oxidise or be affected by the system in which it is being
used.

Biological buffers have an important role to play in…

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Niki Nubi




hand, changes in the hydrogen carbonate ion concentration need hours through relatively slow
elimination through the kidneys.

Oceans can also act as a buffer system for the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide
dissociates to form hydrogen ions and hydrogen carbonate ions. The hydrogen carbonate ions then…

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