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Breaking Matter Down
Mass spectrometer
Before entering the mass spectrometer, solids and liquids are converted into gas (volatised)
by rapid heating or using a heating coil to heat samples electrically. They are carried into the
mass spectrometer by an inert gas.

The mass spectrometer consists of 4 sections;

The ion…

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Velocity Selector

The velocity selector selects ions moving at a certain velocity. Electric and magnetic fields
are applied in opposite directions so that they cancel each other out for particles moving at
a certain velocity that will therefore not be deflected and do travel straight through to the
momentum selector.…

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Linear Accelerator




Adjacent drift tubes are oppositely charged, meaning that the particle is always accelerated
towards the next tube.

Inside the drift tube is uncharged, therefore inside the drift tube the particle travels at
constant speed. This gives the supply time to reverse the polarity before the particle exits
the…

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QB
T = 1
f = 2m


Therefore frequency does not depend on velocity. Similar particles with similar
charge-to-mass ratios will all orbit with the same period regardless of their speed.

BQv = mv2
r v = BQr
m


QBrmax 2 Q2B2r2
maximum kinetic energy Ekmax = 1 2 1…

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Relativity applies. The theory of special relativity only applies when the particle is moving at
constant speed ­ when accelerating, Einstein's Theory of Relativity must be applied.

Key principles of Special Relativity:

The speed of light is the same for all observers irrelative of their motion relative
to each other…

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Therefore we should not see any muons at sea level but we do. Taking into account
t0 2.2x10-6
relativistic effects t = 2
= = 3.5x10-5s
(1- v
c2
)
3x10
x108
1-( 0.998 x 38 )
2




v = ts s = vt = 0.998 x 3x10 x 3.5x10…

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Bqv = mv2/r <--- Shows that the magnetic field causes circular motion.

Creates spiralling path for particles.

Synchrotrons:

Varying magnetic fields allow the particles to have a pathway with a constant radii.

This means that they can be increased to greater speeds than in cyclotrons.

Particle detectors

In bubble chambers…

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