ALL AS/A2 Revision Topics

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AS Physics
Unit 1
Particles, Quantum Phenomena and Electricity
1 Constituents of the Atom
2 Particles and Antiparticles
3 Quarks
4 Hadrons
5 Leptons
6 Forces and Exchange Particles
7 The Strong Interaction
8 The Weak Interaction
9 Feynman Diagrams
10 The Photoelectric Effect
11 Excitation, Ionisation and Energy Levels
12 Wave Particle Duality
13 QVIRt
14 Ohm's Law and IV Graphs
15 Resistivity and Superconductivity
16 Series and Parallel Circuits
17 Energy and Power
18 EMF and Internal Resistance
19 Kirchhoff and Potential Dividers
20 Alternating Current
21 The Oscilloscope
Unit 2

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Mechanics, Materials and Waves
1 Scalars and Vectors
2 Resolving Vectors
3 Moments
4 Velocity and Acceleration
5 Motion Graphs
6 Equations of Motion
7 Terminal Velocity and Projectiles
8 Newton's Laws
9 Work, Energy and Power
10 Conservation of Energy
11 Hooke's Law
12 Stress and Strain
13 Bulk Properties of Solids
14 Young's Modulus
15 Progressive Waves
16 Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
17 Superposition and Standing Waves
18 Refraction
19 Total Internal Reflection
20 Interference
21 Diffraction
Unit 1
Lesson 1 Constituents of…read more

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The Nuclear Model (Also seen in GCSE Physics 1 and 2)
We know from Rutherford's experiment that the structure of an atom consists of positively charged protons
and neutral neutrons in one place called the nucleus. The nucleus sits in the middle of the atom and has
negatively charged electrons orbiting it. At GCSE we used charges and masses for the constituents relative to
each other, the table above shows the actual charges and masses.…read more

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British Physicist Paul Dirac predicted a particle of equal mass to an electron but of opposite charge (positive).
This particle is called a positron and is the electron's antiparticle.
Every particles has its own antiparticle. An antiparticle has the same mass as the particle version but has
opposite charge. An antiproton has a negative charge, an antielectron has a positive charge but an
antineutron is also uncharged like the particle version.…read more

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To know the properties of each type of quark N. DWYER
Rutherford Also seen in GCSE Physics 2
Rutherford fired a beam of alpha particles at a thin gold foil. If the atom had no inner structure the alpha
particles would only be deflected by very small angles. Some of the alpha particles were scattered at large
angles by the nuclei of the atoms. From this Rutherford deduced that the atom was mostly empty space with
the majority of the mass situated in the centre.…read more

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To know what a hadron is and the difference between the two types
To know the properties common to all hadrons
To know the structure of the common hadrons and which is the most stable N. DWYER
Made from Smaller Stuff
Hadrons, the Greek for `heavy' are not fundamental particles they are all made from smaller particles, quarks.
The properties of a hadron are due to the combined properties of the quarks that it is made from.…read more

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Unit 1
Lesson 5 Leptons
To be able to explain what a lepton is
To know the properties common to all leptons
To be able to explain the conservation laws and be able to use them N. DWYER
Fundamental Particles
A fundamental particle is a particle which is not made of anything smaller. Baryons and Mesons are made
from quarks so they are not fundamental, but quarks themselves are.…read more

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There may be a clue to the charge of a particle; + , K
and e+ have a positive charge.
It will only have a baryon number if it IS a baryon. Mesons and Leptons have a Baryon Number of zero.
It will only have a lepton number if it IS a lepton. Baryons and Mesons have a Lepton Number of zero.
It will only have a strangeness if it is made from a strange quark. Leptons have a strangeness of zero.…read more

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In 1947 the exchange particle of the strong nuclear interaction were observed in a cloud chamber.
Lending Money Analogy
Think of making exchange particles in terms of lending somebody some money.
If you lend somebody £50 you would want it paid back fairly soon.
If you lend somebody 50p you would let them have it for longer before paying you back.…read more

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Neutrons ­ Nuclear Cement
In the lighter elements the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is the same. As the nucleus gets
bigger more neutrons are needed to keep it together.
Adding another proton means that all
the other nucleons feel the SNF
attraction. It also means that all the
other protons feel the EM repulsion.
Adding another neutron adds to the
SNF attraction between the nucleons
but, since it is uncharged, it does not
contribute to the EM repulsion.…read more



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