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Key Terms
Attachment: A strong and reciprocal bond between an
infant and caregiver, it is emotional and effective.
Monotropy: 1 strong attachment needed for normal
development.
Maternal deprivation hypothesis: Loss of attachment in
critical period will produce a negative internal model.
Internal model: Cognitive representation of relationships
based on the first maternal relationship we had.
Affectionless psychopath: Someone who has no morals
nor the capability to retain relationships or express
emotion.…read more

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Background
Commissioned by the WHO to study the effects of
parent-child separation in post ww2 Europe.
Separation usually caused by: Death, evacuation or
work.
Observations and interviews in hospitals and
institutions for research.
Main finding: Child's mental health dependent on
continuous loving bond being maintained by caregiver.
Kids with no bond suffered from depression and bad
social skills.…read more

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Monotropy is innate
- Necessary for survival (see: evolutionary basis)
- Significant for healthy development
- 1st 6 months: proximity promoting behaviour: crying and smiling (see:
evolutionary basis)
- Infant shows distress around around strangers, shows preference towards
primary caregiver
- 2nd 6 months: Becomes increasing focus on caregiver, uses them as a safe
base (see: if you're interested) to explore and a source of comfort when in
fear
- If feeling secure and can become independent, they will produce a + internal
working system, if not, they will develop a ­ system
- Attachments after this time are less likely to provide security for the child…read more

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Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis
During first 2yrs of life an internal working
system is formed (see:Key terms) if bond is
broken a negative system will develop
This can have detrimental effects on mental
health: depression, affectionless psychopathy
and bad social skills are some examples.
Other problems such as low intelligence and
delinquency…read more

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Evolutionary Basis of Attachment
It is beneficial to both infant and parent.
A child must stay close with the parent in order to
survive. This is done by using proximity-promoting
behaviour. Allowing access to the parent and so
safety is ensured
Offspring are vulnerable and easy target for
predators
Parents want to produce strong offspring to pass
on genes and therefore help it survive…read more

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