BMAT biology knowledge

Document containing an accumulation of Biology knowledge for section 2 of the BMAT

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  • Created on: 31-10-15 11:36
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Structure animal, plant and bacterial cells:
Animal and plant cells
Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common
Part Function
Nucleus Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the
Cytoplasm Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
Cell Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
Mitochondria Most energy is released by respiration here
Ribosomes Protein synthesis happens here
Plant cells also have extra parts:
Extra parts of plant cells
Part Function
Cell wall Strengthens the cell
Chloroplasts Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for
Permanent Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
Bacterial cell:
It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a
bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus.
Yeast has a nucleus
Examples of the functions of cells
Cell Function Adaption
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Absorbs light Packed with chloroplasts.
energy for Regular shaped, closely packed
photosynthesis cells form a continuous layer for
efficient absorption of sunlight.
Leaf cell
Absorbs water and Long 'finger-like' process with
mineral ions from very thin wall, which gives a
the soil large surface area.
Root hair cell
Fertilises an egg The head contains genetic
cell - female information and an enzyme to
gamete help penetrate the egg cell
membrane. The middle section
is packed with mitochondria for
energy.…read more

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Active transport is the process by which dissolved molecules move across a cell
membrane from a lower to a higher concentration.
In active transport, particles move against the concentration gradient - and
therefore require an input of energyfrom the cell.
Sometimes dissolved molecules are at a higher concentration inside the cell than
outside, but, because the organism needs these molecules, they still have to be
Carrier proteins pick up specific moleculesand take them through the cell
membrane against the concentration gradient.…read more

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1. parent cell
2. chromosomes make identical copies of themselves
3. they line up along the centre
4. they move apart
5.…read more

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Two new cells form
-each cell is identical to other one and the parent cell
each strand of DNA is made up of four bases
the two strands coil together to form a double helix, there are chemical cross-links
between the two strands (these are bases)
Genes and proteins
Each gene in a molecule of DNA contains:
A different sequence of bases
Codes for a particular protein
Proteins are made in the cytoplasm of a cell, not in the nucleus.…read more

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Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. They are found in the cytoplasm but DNA is
found in the nucleus. The genetic code needed to make a particular protein is carried
from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA. Making:
mRNA from DNA is called transcription
Proteins from mRNA is called translation
DNA spiral unzips
Free nucleotides lock onto bases (complementary base pairing)
Two copies of original spiral formed
During mitosis, the chromosomes:
1.…read more

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Individuals A and B have brown eyes - only individual C has blue eyes
Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease is an inherited disorder that affects the nervous system. It is
caused by a dominant allele. This means it can be passed on by just one parent if they
have the disorder. The genetic diagram shows how this can happen.…read more

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The basic units of DNA are nucleotides. These nucleotides consist of a deoxyribose
sugar, phosphate and base.
The nucleotides are identical except for the base, which can be an adenine, thymine,
guanine or cytosine.
These basic units are linked together to form strands by strong covalent bonds
between the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next
nucleotide. These strong bonds form a sugarphosphate backbone.…read more

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All cells store their genetic information in the base sequence of DNA.
The genotype is determined by the sequence of bases.
Organisation of DNA
DNA is present in the cells of every living thing. However, the DNA is organised
differently in different types of organism.
We can divide cells into two groups based on how they organise their DNA ­
eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Bacteria are prokaryotes. They do not have a membranebound nucleus and their
DNA is free in the cytoplasm .…read more

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Animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes. They have a membranebound nucleus
and their chromosomes are linear rather than circular.
The DNA found in the linear chromosomes is tightly coiled and packaged around
special proteins as shown below.
Interestingly, circular chromosomes are also found in mitochondria and
chloroplasts.They both use their own DNA to make some proteins needed for their
function. This gives evidence for the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts
originated from prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by a larger cell.…read more


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