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Structure animal, plant and bacterial cells:

Animal and plant cells
Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common

Part Function

Nucleus Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the

Cytoplasm Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes

Cell Controls the…

Page 2

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Absorbs light Packed with chloroplasts.
energy for Regular shaped, closely packed
photosynthesis cells form a continuous layer for
efficient absorption of sunlight.

Leaf cell

Absorbs water and Long 'finger-like' process with
mineral ions from very thin wall, which gives a
the soil large surface area.

Root hair cell

Fertilises an…

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Active transport is the process by which dissolved molecules move across a cell
membrane from a lower to a higher concentration.
In active transport, particles move against the concentration gradient - and
therefore require an input of energyfrom the cell.
Sometimes dissolved molecules are at a higher concentration…

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1. parent cell
2. chromosomes make identical copies of themselves
3. they line up along the centre
4. they move apart
5. two daughter cells form with identical chromosomes to the parent cell

Page 4of 24

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-Two new cells form

-each cell is identical to other one and the parent cell


each strand of DNA is made up of four bases
the two strands coil together to form a double helix, there are chemical cross-links
between the two strands (these are bases)

Genes and…

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Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. They are found in the cytoplasm but DNA is
found in the nucleus. The genetic code needed to make a particular protein is carried
from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA. Making:
mRNA from DNA is called transcription

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Individuals A and B have brown eyes - only individual C has blue eyes

Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease is an inherited disorder that affects the nervous system. It is
caused by a dominant allele. This means it can be passed on by just one parent if they
have the disorder.…

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The basic units of DNA are nucleotides. These nucleotides consist of a deoxyribose
sugar, phosphate and base.
The nucleotides are identical except for the base, which can be an adenine, thymine,
guanine or cytosine.

These basic units are linked together to form strands by strong covalent bonds
between the deoxyribose…

Page 9

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All cells store their genetic information in the base sequence of DNA.
The genotype is determined by the sequence of bases.

Organisation of DNA
DNA is present in the cells of every living thing. However, the DNA is organised
differently in different types of organism.
We can divide cells into…

Page 10

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Animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes. They have a membranebound nucleus
and their chromosomes are linear rather than circular.
The DNA found in the linear chromosomes is tightly coiled and packaged around
special proteins as shown below.

Interestingly, circular chromosomes are also found in mitochondria and
chloroplasts.They both use…


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