Biology ocr gateway 2013 higher tier, B4 and part of B5

APOLOGIES: sorry for not completing b5 topic as i was donig this as part of my revision for the exam (which i have now taken) and didnt finnish the powerpoint ( instead i read my revision notes 

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Population, Community & Ecosystems
Population size = no' first sample x no' in second sample
no' marked in second sample
Population: all organisms of same species in a habitat
Community: number of organisms of different species within a habitat
Ecosystems- self supporting- abiotic (non-living) and living organisms ­
include essentials such as water, nutrients and elements (carbon and
nitrogen) - includes sun (organisms and environment)
Habitat- natural living area/ environment of living plants /organisms…read more

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Distribution of organisms
Distribution- number of organisms in an area
Transect- specific area to show the distribution of
organisms and abundance of abiotic factors
Zonation- gradual change in the distribution of species
across a habitat
Abiotic- non-living/ physical factors: temperature,
light, water, oxygen, carbon, salinity- affects the
distribution of organisms…read more

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Biodiversity- variety of species / habitats
Natural ecosystems- higher biodiversity- naturally sustained
Artificial ecosystems- human interference
Plantations- selected trees usually one type- densely
planted- same age- fewer habitats (constant disturbance)-
fewer species- less habitats/ sources of food.
Native woodland- varied species( tree and plant) / habitats,
different ages…read more

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Photosynthesis: requires light energy
Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
Photosynthesis: takes energy for the sun absorbed by
chlorophyll pigments (in chloroplasts within plant cells) to
change carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
Light energy is used to split water into oxygen gas and
hydrogen ions.
Carbon dioxide gas then combines with the hydrogen ions to
make glucose.…read more

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Uses of glucose in plants
Respiration- releases energy to convert glucose in to useful
Making cell walls- glucose cellulose for making cell walls
Making proteins- glucose + nitrates amino acids- then made into
proteins used for growth and repair
Stored in seeds- glucose LIPIDS (fats and oils) which is stored in
Stored as starch- glucose starch- stored in roots, stems and
leaves for when photosynthesis cannot occur for respiration
Starch= insoluble- good for storage- doesn't affect the water
concentration inside plant cells…read more

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