Biology help sheet

These are simplified notes on some of the difficult aspects of biology.

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Biology Help Sheet
Explain why the data could be unreliable
How diarrhea is caused?
The Water Potential in the Lumen decreases. Water enters intestine by osmosis and leads to diarrhea.
Too small of a sample size
Genetic differences not taken into account
Different sexes in sample
Explain why enzymes are so specific
Have a complementary AS to Substrate
This enables formation of ESC
This means the AS is unable to bind with another substrate
Explain how memory cells work
When an individual comes into contact with a previous antibody memory cells are activated
The memory cells produce a very fast and efficient secondary immune response which produces
lots of antibodies
Destroys antibodies before symptoms occur
How is starch digested
Its broken down into MALTOSE = AMYLASE (Salivary glands and pancreas)
This is further broken down into a glucose =MALTASE (Plasma membranes of epithelial
cells)
In which order are proteins removed from the cells
RER
Golgi Body
Ribosomes
Biuret Test
Add Biuret Reagent to sample
A lilac colour indicated protein is present a blue colour indicates its not
Test for Starch
Add iodine dissolved in potassium iodine solution
If starch present colour changes from browny-orange to dark, blue-black

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Reducing Sugar Test
Add Benedicts sample and heat
Reducing sugar present a RED colour formed
If not it stays blue
Non Reducing sugar test
Has to have tested negative for reducing sugar
Add dilute hydrochloric acid to sample
Heat
Neutralize solution
Add Benedicts and heart
NRS present-brick red colour
Principles of centrifugation
Sample is placed in
COLD- Minimize enzyme reactions
BUFFERED- Maintain constant PH
ISOTONIC- Prevents water gain/loss by osmosis so the organelle isn't damaged
Cells are fragmented by a homogenizer which releases organelles from…read more

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