Biology

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Biology
ATP
The Importance of ATP
C6H12 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
What is energy used for?
Active transport
Exocytosis
Nerve transmission
Muscle contraction
Synthesis of organic molecules
Respiration is the process by which chemical energy in organic molecules
is released by oxidation. The energy is made available to cells in the form of
ATP. ATP is made by the phosphorylation of ADP.
Since the energy to add the Pi comes from oxidation, it is known as
Oxidative Phosphorylation. This is an endergonic reaction (one that absorbs
energy.) 30.6kJ per mole of energy is released from ATP. This takes place in
the inner membrane (Cristae) of the mitochondria. ATP synthetase makes
ATP using ADP and Pi.
Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation takes place in the inner membrane of the
mitochondria. The process produces ATP. ATP is made from ADP and Pi
using the enzyme ATP Synthetase. This takes place in the electron
transport chain. An electron lost from the Hydrogen atom travel through
electron carriers in the membrane. These fuel the proton pumps which
actively transport protons into the inner membrane space. This creates an
electrochemical gradient. The H+ ions diffuse through the ATP synthetase
which gives the energy for ATP to form from ADP + Pi. The electrons from
the electron carrier join with oxygen to form H2O.

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Electron Transport Chain In Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Similarities Differences
Happens in a membrane In chloroplast, light provides the
electrons energy. In mitochondria
the electron come from NADH.
Both create a proton gradient across
the membrane
Both use ATP Synthetase In the mitochondria the membrane
is in the cristae. In the chloroplast
the membrane is in the thylakoid.
Why ATP?
Only uses 1 enzyme to release energy
Releases small amounts of energy when and where it is needed.…read more

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