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What is stress?
It is experienced when a persons perceived environmental, social
and their physical demands exceed their perceived ability to cope.
In a short period of time, this can lead to `fight or flight', this helps a
person deal with acute stressors.
Over a long period of time, the bodies response is chronic stressors.
Sonam Kerai…read more

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Acute stressors:
The Sympathomedullary Pathway
Acute stressors arouse the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
The ANS is part of the nervous system
ANS is divided into two parts, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the
parasympathetic branch
The SNS arouses an animal and prepares them for `fight or flight'.
The parasympathetic branch returns the animal to a state of relaxation.
Key part of the `fight or flight' is the sympathetic adrenal medulla system
(SAM system).
The SNS and the SAM system make up the `SYMPATHOMEDULLARY PATHWAY.
Sonam Kerai…read more

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The body's response to stress
Acute stressors Chronic stressors
Sympathetic adrenal medulla Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal axis
(SAM) (HPA)
Leads to changes such as: The ACTH
travels to the
-Increased heart rate Adrenal Cortex
-Blood pressure which simulates the release of
-Cardiac output Cortico-Steroids
-Shaking into the
-Sweating Blood stream
which gives
Energy (needed for action)
Noradrenaline is the by converting fat & protein
neurotransmitter released by the
SNS to active these internal body
organs. Sonam Kerai…read more

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The SAM system
The SAM system alerts the animal through the release of adrenaline
into the bloodstream where it is transported around the body to
prepare the animal for `fight or flight'.
The SAM system is regulated by the SNS and the adrenal medulla.
Sonam Kerai…read more

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The adrenal medulla
Each adrenal gland has two separate zones.
The adrenal medulla in the centre of the gland
The adrenal cortex around the outside
Neurones of the SNS travel to the medulla, so that when it is
activated it releases adrenaline into the bloodstream.
Sonam Kerai…read more

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