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Key Assumptions
Behaviour is determined by the
environment i.e. it is learned
There is an environmental stimulus
that causes a behavioural response.
They focus on observable behaviour
that can be objectively measured using
scientific methods…read more

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Classical Conditioning
Behaviour is learned via association.
A reflex behaviour becomes associated with a
new stimulus that does not naturally activate that
behaviour.…read more

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Pavlov's Dogs
Before conditioning
Food (unconditioned Stimulus UCS) Salivation (Unconditioned
Buzzer (neutral stimulus US) Response UCR)
During Conditioning No response
Food (UCS)
+
Salivation (Conditioned Response
Buzzer(NS) CR)
After Conditioning
Buzzer (Conditioned Stimulus Salivation (Conditioned Response
CS) CR)…read more

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Little Albert (Watson & Raynor)
An 11 month old child `Little Albert' showed no
fear of the stimulus of a white rat.
However, he did show a fear of
a hammer hitting a metal bar.
The experimenters made a loud noise in his ear and
at the same time
presented the rat.
Albert developed a fear of rats.…read more

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Operant Conditioning
Differs from classical conditioning as it
involves voluntary behaviour and not
reflex behaviour…read more

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