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Key Assumptions
Behaviour is determined by the
environment i.e. it is learned
There is an environmental stimulus
that causes a behavioural response.
They focus on observable behaviour
that can be objectively measured using
scientific methods…read more

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Classical Conditioning
Behaviour is learned via association.
A reflex behaviour becomes associated with a
new stimulus that does not naturally activate that
behaviour.…read more

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Pavlov's Dogs
Before conditioning
Food (unconditioned Stimulus UCS) Salivation (Unconditioned
Buzzer (neutral stimulus US) Response UCR)
During Conditioning No response
Food (UCS)
Salivation (Conditioned Response
Buzzer(NS) CR)
After Conditioning
Buzzer (Conditioned Stimulus Salivation (Conditioned Response
CS) CR)…read more

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Little Albert (Watson & Raynor)
An 11 month old child `Little Albert' showed no
fear of the stimulus of a white rat.
However, he did show a fear of
a hammer hitting a metal bar.
The experimenters made a loud noise in his ear and
at the same time
presented the rat.
Albert developed a fear of rats.…read more

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Operant Conditioning
Differs from classical conditioning as it
involves voluntary behaviour and not
reflex behaviour…read more

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