B2: Cell Division and Inheritance

Here is a document for students taking AQA Additional Science. This is a document based on cell division and inheritance, including mitosis, meiosis, fertilisation, inheritance of sex, alleles and genetic disorders from the B2 (biology) section. I hope this helps you to revise! The document has been written in easy revision format. Please rate and comment on how to improve :) Also, I have a study group called AQA Additional Science where we discuss topics such as this one and more. Feel free to become a member, the more the merrier! Study Group: http://getrevising.co.uk/studygroups/aqa_additional_science

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  • Created by: I P B
  • Created on: 05-01-10 18:36
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B2: Inheritance

Cell Division


In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs

Body cells divide by mitosis to produce additional cells during
growth or to replace other cells.

Mitosis also occurs during asexual reproduction.

Before each cell divides, a copy of each chromosome is made so

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When a cell divides to form gametes:
Copies of the chromosomes are made
Then the cell divides twice to form four gametes, each with a
single set of chromosomes

Inheritance of sex ­ the sex chromosome

In human body cells, one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes is the

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This type of inheritance is referred to as monohybrid inheritance

Differentiation of cells
When cells develop a specialised structure to carry out a specific
structure, this is called differentiation.

Most type of animal cells differentiate at an early stage in life so
quickly become muscles, nerves etc.

Many plant cells…

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Each person has unique DNA (apart from identical twins who have
the same DNA)

A way of identifying each individual is using DNA fingerprinting

Genetic Disorders

Some disorders are inherited such as cystic fibrosis and
Huntington's disease.

Embryos can be screened for the alleles that cause these and
other disorders…

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Embryos provide the most Stem cells are cultivated using
useful stem cells: the cells are nutrients from animal sources,
nonspecialised, which means which could carry diseases that
they can become any specific could be passed on to humans
type of cell (adult stem cells are
more limited in their potential…




A good set of notes on inheritance which has usefully included tables to compare the advantages and disadvantages of  stem cells and genetic engineering which often forms the basis of some of the longer questions in the GCSE Biology syllabus.

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