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BP: measured in mmHg
Aerobic respiration: Systolic pressure: maximum pressure the heart produces
Glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energy Diastolic pressure: blood pressure between heart beats
Exercise creates an oxygen debt
Measuring fitness:
Anaerobic respiration: Strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed
Glucose Lactic acid + energy
·Much less energy released than aerobic respiration
·You breathe heavily to replace oxygen
·Heart beats faster so blood carries lactic acid away to liver to be broken down BMI= mass (Kg)
height (m)2
RDA: Recommended daily allowance
B1 Understanding
Types of cancer:
Benign tumours are slow to divide, harmless and do not spread RDA(g) = 0.75X body mass (Kg)
Malignant tumours are cancerous, divide out of control and spread throughout the
body Protein deficiency - Kwashiorkor
Inheritance- Parents who are both carriers of
Carbohydrase (produced in the mouth,
the Cystic fibrosis allele (c).
pancreas and small intestine) breaks
_______ (a carbohydrate) down into ParentsCc x Cc
glucose: Gametes C or c x C or c
Protease (produced in the stomach, (egg/sperm) C c
pancreas and small intestine) breaks
Possible Outcomes C CC Cc
_______ down into amino acids:
75% Normal c
Cc cc
25% sufferers
Lipase (produced in the pancreas and small
intestine) breaks fats (_____) down into
fatty acids and glycerol:
Words ­ blood, lipids, proteins, digestion, starch, smaller…read more

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Cystic Fibrosis Controlling Blood Sugar Insulin produced
rises (eat
Controlled by the pancreas, diabetics by the pancreas
Caused by recessive allele (so two food)
do not produce enough insulin causes glucose to
copies of allele are needed).
Treatments change to
A thick sticky mucus is produced Injections or monitoring diet glycogen
affecting air passages and Normal Normal
digestive systems blood blood
level Glucagon released level.
and glycogen
Producing antibodies
Glucose converted back to
falls glucose
Step 1: The lymphocyte "sees" Step 2: The cell produces antibodies Temperature
the pathogen (microbe ) to "fit" the pathogen Monitored by
centre in brain and
receptors in skin.
Too Hot
-hair lies flat
-blood vessels
dilate so heat lost
Step 3: The antibodies fit onto Step 4: The pathogens are through skin
the pathogens and cause them to "eaten" by the white blood cells -sweat produced
Too Cold
Reflex action: Stimulus receptor sensory neurone Concave lens and convex lens corrects refraction of light rays -goosebumps &
relay neuron in spinal cord motor neurone response so the image lands on the retina hairs trap air
-blood vessels
-no sweat
-shiver, respiration
releases heat…read more

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Class A Class B Class C
DNA with bases
Example Ecstasy, LSD, heroin, Amphetamines, Cannabis, Tranquilisers, some
cocaine, crack, magic Methylphenidate (Ritalin), painkillers, Gamma
mushrooms, Pholcodine. hydroxybutyrate (GHB),
amphetamines (if Ketamine.
prepared for injection).
Possession Up to seven years in Up to five years in prison Up to two years in prison
prison or an unlimited or an unlimited fine or or an unlimited fine or
fine or both. both. both.
Dealing Up to life in prison or an Up to 14 years in prison Up to 14 years in prison
unlimited fine or both. or an unlimited fine or or an unlimited fine or
both. both.
Damaged cilia in a smoker's air way
Hormones of the menstrual cycle
Lobed ears are dominant over ears with no lobes
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
Human male chromosomes…read more

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What evidence is there that evolution is D______ proposed the theory of
happening? How are human beings different e______ to explain how species change
from apes? over time. There is v_______ between
Fossil record is incomplete because: · bigger b_____ individuals, those that are better
·Some body part decay quickly · w_____ upright a_______ are more likely to s________
·Fossilisation is rare and r________, passing on favorable
·There may still be fossils we have not characteristics.
found Ocean, dessert, grass land, The up and down pattern of predator and prey
rain forest population is called cyclic fluctuations
Farm land, Aquarium, green house LAMARCK
Believed that
Photosynthesis happens only during day but acquired
respiration happens both during day and night characteristics
can be inherited
B2 Understanding
The presence or absence of an indicator species is
used to estimate levels of pollution Example: Lichens the environment
CHARLES DARWIN: Developed theory of
Invertebrate Vertebrate
natural selection based on survival of fittest
·Genes pass on the successful characteristics to
No back bone Back bone present
the next generation
Example: Worms, Example: Humans, fishes
What resources are plants and
animals in competition for? EXTINCTION Adaptation: features which help a plant
· Space Causes of extinction: or animal survive in an extreme
· Food · increased c_______ Sustainable development environment,. Example: Polar bear, Camel and
· Mate · New p________ is taking things from the cactus
· e_________ change environment but leaving
· new d_________ enough behind to Vertebrate group Description
ensure a supply for
the future and Fish Has scales and gills
prevent damage
Amphibian Has moist permeable skin
PHOTOSYNTHESIS : Carbon dioxide + water ------ glucose + oxygen
Reptile Has dry scaly skin
LINCOLN INDEX: Population = MUTUALISM: When both
Number of animals number of animals Organisms benefit, example: Bird Has feathers and a beak
Caught 1st time X caught 2nd time Pea plant and
number of marked animals caught second time nitrogen ­ fixing bacteria Mammals Has fur and feeds young
on milk…read more

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"Species" means "a group of similar organisms"
which are capable of interbreeding to produce
fertile offspring, e.g. dogs
Hybrids are the result of breeding two
animals form different species, they
cannot reproduce and are sterile.
Example: Tiger +Lion = Tigon
+ =
Reproduction between species
Labrador Poodle Labradoodle
Classifying organisms
Mule Liger
Zebroid Geep
Used to make cellulose Plants Animals
Used as energy for plant cell walls
Stored as starch Have No
backbone backbone
Used to make plant proteins Stored as fats and oils
for plant growth Vertebrates Invertebrates
Oxygen Amphibians Birds Reptiles Fish Mammals
Ecological niche: The role of an organism in an ecosystem is called its ecological niche.
Used in respiration Released into air Example: Native red and American grey squirrels. In Britain, there are 2 types of
Direct products of photosynthesis squirrels which occupy same ecological niche and there is a competition leading to
decline in number of red squirrels.…read more

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