Atomic Structure & Bonding

Atomic structure-GCSE/IGCSE Chemistry

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE
A n
atom
is
the
smal
lest
par
ti
cl
e of
an
element
w hi
ch can
exist
.
It
i
s possi
ble
to
spli
t
an
ato m
i
n t
o smal
ler
p ar
ti
cl
es,
but
t
hese
w i
l
l
no l
onger
di
splay
the
propert
ies
of
a part
icul
ar
chemical
element
.
RELATI
V E
RELATI
VE
MASS LOCATI
O N
CHAR GE
Prot
on 1 +1 nucl
eus
Neut
ron 1 0 nucl
eus
El
ec tr
o Negl
igi
ble
1 or
bit
ing
nucl
eus
n (1/
2000)
T he ma ss
of
the at
om i
s con centrat
ed
in
th e
nucleus,
since
thi
s c ontai
ns t
he prot
on s and neut
rons.
T he
e lect
ro ns ha ve
a rel
ati
vely i
n signi
fi
ca nt
ma ss,
and
orbi
t t
he nucl
e u s.
The r
elat
ive
dis t
an ce
between the
n ucleu s
an d the
electr
on s i
s hu ge
if
an at
o m w ere
expa nded t
o the si
ze of
We mb l
ey Stadi
um, t
h e
n ucleu s
w ou l
d be t
he
size of
a
footbal
l,
placed
on t
he
centre
spo t,
and t
he elect
rons
the si
ze of
grai
ns of
s and, orbit
in g
in
the r
e gi
o n
o f
the outer
mo s t
seats.
Between t
h e nucleus
a nd
the
ele ctr
ons i
s nothi
ng ­
a n
a tom is ma i
n l
y comp osed
o f
emp ty
spa ce.
Atomic Number
T he at omic
n umb er
is t
he
number of protons in one atom of
a par
ti
cular
element.
It
i
s t
he atomic
n umb e r
w hi
c h det
e r
min es wh i
c h
eleme nt
a
parti
cul
a r
atom i
s.
If
a n at
om h as
8 el
ec trons,
i
t
is
an oxygen
a tom a l
l
sod i
u m at
o ms ha ve 11 el
e ct
rons. The at
omi c
numb er
is
show n
at t
he bot
to m lef
t of
t
he
e leme nt'
s sy mb ol
,
an d
ca n be found here
o n t
he Peri
o di
c Tabl
e .
A n ato m has
n o
overall
cha r
g e.
It
has an equ al
numb er
of
prot
o n s
(posi
ti
vely
charge d) and
elect
rons
( negat i
vely
c harged).
This me a ns
that
the
a tomic
n umbe r
i
s al
so equal
to
the numb er of
el
ectrons
in
the
a tom.
Mass Number
T he ma ss
nu mb er
is
the total number of protons and neutrons in one atom. This t
e l
l
s us t
he ma ss
of
t he
ato m, si
n ce t
he
ma ss of
th e
e l
ectr
on s
is i
nsigni
fi
can t
.
The
ma ss
numb er
is
w r
it
te n at
t
he toplef
t of
t he
symb ol.
T he ma ss
nu mb er
ca n
be
u sed
to
fi
n d
the numb er
o f
neutr
ons i
n a par
ti
cular
atom:
number of neutrons = mass number atomic number
1

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Isotopes
A lt
ho ugh
the
n u mb er
of
prot
o ns
in t
he ato m is
fi
xed for a
p arti
cular el
eme nt,
t
he
n umb er of
n e utrons
is
n ot.
For
exa mp l e,
a
ca r
bon
atom mu st
ha ve 6
proto ns, o t
h erw i
se it
wou l
d not
be carbo n.…read more

Page 3

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Maximum number of electrons 2 8 8 (
2)
T hee
lectr
on sf
ill
upt
hes h ell
s, be gi
n ningw itht
h s
e1 t
sh ell
(cl
os es t
t
ot h en
ucleus),
andmo v i
n go
nt
othe
n ext
shel
l
ou t
w hen one
is
full
.
e .
g.…read more

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STRUCTURE AND BONDING
STRUCTURE
A ll
materi
als
have one o f
two types of
struct
ure ­
giant,
or
simple molecular.
The str
ucture
of
a
substance
d escri
bes how the particles are arranged, and should
not be
c onf
us ed
w it
h i
ts
bonding, which
d escri
bes t
he
nature
of the f
o rces wh i
ch t
he atoms
toget
h er
i
n a comp ound .…read more

Page 5

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T herea
ret
hreed
i f
ferent
type so
f
b ond i
ngw
h i
chh
o ldt
o gethe r
thea toms
i
ns ubs tances.
All
t
hreea
r et
he
r esul
t of
t
h er
edist
ri
bu t
iono
f el
ectr
o ns, soi
t i
se
s se nt
ial
tor
e call
theb
a si
cf
actso f at
omics
t r
ucturei
n
o rder
to
und erstand
b ondi
ng .…read more

Page 6

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IONIC BONDING
I oni
cb o n di
ngo
c cursi nc
o mp oundso
f
ame t
al
w i
than
o n metal
, asw
ell
asa
mmo nium c omp ound s.
Wh e nd
i ssol
vedi nw
a t
er,
a ci
dsa
lsof
or
m ions.…read more

Page 7

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N o t
e t
hat
the
calci
um at
om has l
o st
i
ts
2
t
h
o utershel
l
elect
rons
(f
rom t
he 4 shel
l)
, so
rd
t he
next
shell
i
n mus t
be
show n
(the
3
s hell
),
whi
ch i
s f
ull
.
C a l
ci
um has l
ost
2 e l
ect
rons,
so
h as
b ecome
a 2+
ion.…read more

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PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS
Remember: METALS IONS ALWAYS FORM POSITIVE IONS.
NONMETALS FORM NEGATIVE IONS EXCEPT FOR
HYDROGEN (H+) AND AMMOUNIUM (NH4+) IONS.
T hei
onsf
orme dh
a veo
ppo si
tec
harges­p
o si
ti
vef
or th eme
tal
, negat
ivef
or
then
on metal
.…read more

Page 9

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COVALENT BONDING
C o valentb
o nd i
ngo
c cur
si
ns
u bst
a ncesf
o rme do
n lyf
rom nonmetals ­i
f ame tal
i
sp
r esent i
na
c omp o und, t
heb o nd i
ngw
i l
l
bei oni
c.
C oval ent
bon din go
ccursw
h enp
a ir
so
f
elect
rons­o
n ef
rom each
a tom ­
are
shared be t
w een
n onme tal
at
oms .…read more

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