Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Atomic Structure
The nucleus contains protons (positively charged) and neutrons
(neutrally charged).
The atomic number (proton number) is equal to the number of protons
in the atom's nucleus and the amount of electrons orbiting the nucleus
The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the
Ions do not have the same number of electrons as protons, and so have
an overall charge.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Molecular formula
Molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule.
You can determine the molecular formula of a molecule from the
empirical formula by...
Diving the molecular mass of the molecule by the relative molecular
mass, then multiplying each molecule by this number.
Equations involving the Mole, concentration and
Moles= concentration x volume
Mass (g) = Moles x Molar mass
Volume = Concentration x 24dm3
Steps to calculate masses made in a reaction
1. Balance equation
2.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Metal carbonates contain the carbonate ion (CO32-). A carbonate ions
can accept two protons to form carbon dioxide and water: CO32- + 2H+
CO2 + H2O
Ammonia can accept a proton to form an ammonium ion: NH3 + H+
Reactions of Acids and Bases
The reaction between an acid and a base is called a
neutralisation reaction.
Salts are formed when a hydrogen ion from the acid is replaced by a
metal ion, or an ammonium ion.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

When an acid reacts with a base, it loses its H+ ion. The H ion is replaced
either with the metal ion from the base or with an ammonium ion. The
resulting compound is called a salt.
An anhydrous salt is a salt that contains no water. Hydrated
salts become anhydrous salts once they are heated.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Indicator Colour in acid Colour in End point colour if acid has
base been added to base
Methyl orange red yellow orange
Bromothymol yellow blue Green
phenolphthalein colourless pink pink
To find out the concentration of the acid/base...
1. Balance the equation
2. Divide the volume by 1,000 to turn it from cm3 to dm3
3. Multiply the volume in dm3 by the concentration in mol/dm3 to find
the moles of the known substance
4. Then you can find the molar ratio
5.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Oxidation number rules
An element in its natural state and compounds have oxidation numbers of 0
The oxidation number of a monatomic ion has the same charge as the ion
Hydrogen's oxidation number is +1 (in a compound)
Oxygen's oxidation number is -2 (in a compound)
Group 1 elements have an oxidation number of +1
Group 2 elements have an oxidation number of +2
Group 3 elements have an oxidation number of +3
Group 7 elements have an oxidation number of -1
The sum of…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Electronic Structure
Electrons occupy energy levels around the nucleus of the
atom, where each shell has a principal quantum number.
For principal quantum number, n=1, the number of electrons is 2; for
n=2, the number is 8; then 18; then 32 electrons for n=4.
Main energy levels are sub-divided into sub-shells and these consist of
orbitals called s, p and d-orbitals.
Elements have an electronic configuration that can be shown in s, p or d
notation, for example, sodium is 1s2,2s2 ,2p6 ,3s1 .…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

A dative covalent bond is one formed in which both electrons
are donated from the same atom.
A metallic bond is formed when positive metal cations are
attracted to negatively charged delocalised electrons.
Delocalized electrons are electrons that are shared by TWO
or more atoms.
Hydrogen bonding is the electromagnetic attractive
interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom,
such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

A non-polar molecule a symmetrical molecule, without an
overall dipole.
A polar molecule is - a non-symmetrical molecule, with an
overall dipole.
An overall dipole is formed when one of the atoms in the
bond, has a higher electronegativity (as it has the most electrons,
as shown in the picture)
The atom with a high electronegativity is shown by a delta negative
Molecular Shapes
The shape of a molecule is determined by the repulsion between
bonded electrons and non-bonded electrons (lone pairs).…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »