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Atomic Structure

The nucleus contains protons (positively charged) and neutrons
(neutrally charged).
The atomic number (proton number) is equal to the number of protons
in the atom's nucleus and the amount of electrons orbiting the nucleus
The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the

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Molecular formula
Molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule.
You can determine the molecular formula of a molecule from the
empirical formula by...
Diving the molecular mass of the molecule by the relative molecular
mass, then multiplying each molecule by this number.


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Metal carbonates contain the carbonate ion (CO32-). A carbonate ions
can accept two protons to form carbon dioxide and water: CO32- + 2H+
CO2 + H2O
Ammonia can accept a proton to form an ammonium ion: NH3 + H+

Reactions of Acids and Bases

The reaction between an acid…

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When an acid reacts with a base, it loses its H+ ion. The H ion is replaced
either with the metal ion from the base or with an ammonium ion. The
resulting compound is called a salt.
An anhydrous salt is a salt that contains no water. Hydrated
salts become…

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Indicator Colour in acid Colour in End point colour if acid has
base been added to base
Methyl orange red yellow orange
Bromothymol yellow blue Green
phenolphthalein colourless pink pink

To find out the concentration of the acid/base...
1. Balance the equation
2. Divide the volume by 1,000 to…

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Oxidation number rules
An element in its natural state and compounds have oxidation numbers of 0
The oxidation number of a monatomic ion has the same charge as the ion
Hydrogen's oxidation number is +1 (in a compound)
Oxygen's oxidation number is -2 (in a compound)
Group 1 elements have…

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Electronic Structure

Electrons occupy energy levels around the nucleus of the
atom, where each shell has a principal quantum number.
For principal quantum number, n=1, the number of electrons is 2; for
n=2, the number is 8; then 18; then 32 electrons for n=4.
Main energy…

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A dative covalent bond is one formed in which both electrons
are donated from the same atom.
A metallic bond is formed when positive metal cations are
attracted to negatively charged delocalised electrons.
Delocalized electrons are electrons that are shared by TWO
or more atoms.
Hydrogen bonding is the electromagnetic…

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electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
A non-polar molecule a symmetrical molecule, without an
overall dipole.
A polar molecule is - a non-symmetrical molecule, with an
overall dipole.
An overall dipole is formed when one of the atoms in the
bond, has a higher electronegativity (as it has the most electrons,…


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