Slides in this set
Need to know:
First Invasion- Reasons, Preparations, problem and successes.
Second Invasion- Reasons, Preparations, problems, successes AND
Most of the information is in the Caesar Conquest of Gaul book, BUT there is also extracts from
Strabo and Tacitus' Agricola.
1). To find out about the land, people and landing places.
2). Deal with the Britons helping Gaul.
3). Resources- BUT this is mentioned in Caesar's second invasion account
1). Sent Volensus to be a scout- `His orders were to make a general reconaissance and return as soon
as he could'
2). Sent Commius to win tribes over- `He instructed Commius to visit as many tribes as possible, to irge
them to entrust themselves to the protection of Rome'
3). Spoke to the traders- `...interviewed the traders from all parts but could not ascertain anything...'
4). Prepared two legions- `...eighty transports which Caesar considered sufficient for two legions...'
1). Commius was captured `...delivering Caesar's message...the natives arrested and bound him...'
2). Tides- Cavalry was swept back- `...such a violent storm arose that none of them could hold its
3). Difficult landing
4). Hostilities from tribes as well as changing attitudes- `...had sent forward their cavalry, and a
number of chariots which they are accustomed to use Kayput
in warfare...'…read more
Extent of Success
Defeat of tribes:
`The defeated enemy, as soon as they rallied after their flight, hastened to send an
embassy to ask for peace, promising to give hostages and carry out Caesar's
`He demanded twice as many hostages as before, and ordered those to be bought to
Upon return- `Senate decreed a public thanksgiving of twenty days'
First Roman General to reach Britain
1). Same as the first invasion
2). Not all the tribes had sent hostages- Unfinished business?
3). Help Mandubracius of Trinovantes
1). This time prepared five legions- `Caesar took with him five legions and the remaining
two thousand cavalry...'
2). Redesigned the boats for easier beaching- `He specified the dimensions and shape of
the new ships. To enable them to be loaded quickly and beached easily...'
1). Hostility of tribes,led by Cassivelaunus (King of the Catuvellauni)- `British forces has
now been assembled from all sides by Cassivellaunus'
2). Ships damaged in storm- `...could not cope with such a violent gale, so that many
vessels were disabled running foul of one another.'
3). The need to find grain Kayput…read more
Defeats the tribe and Catuvellauni- `Cassivellaunus alarmed by so many reverses, by the devastation of his
country...sent envoys to Caesar to obtain terms of surrender, employing Commius as an intermediary.'
Obtained hostages- `demanding hostages, fixing an annual tribute to be paid by the Britons to the Roman
government, and strictly forbidding Cassivelaunus to molest Mandubracius of the Trinovantes.'
A safe return to Gaul :D