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Caesar
Need to know:
First Invasion- Reasons, Preparations, problem and successes.
Second Invasion- Reasons, Preparations, problems, successes AND
ethnography.
Most of the information is in the Caesar Conquest of Gaul book, BUT there is also extracts from
Strabo and Tacitus' Agricola.
Kayput…read more

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First Invasion
Reasons:
1). To find out about the land, people and landing places.
2). Deal with the Britons helping Gaul.
3). Resources- BUT this is mentioned in Caesar's second invasion account
Preparations:
1). Sent Volensus to be a scout- `His orders were to make a general reconaissance and return as soon
as he could'
2). Sent Commius to win tribes over- `He instructed Commius to visit as many tribes as possible, to irge
them to entrust themselves to the protection of Rome'
3). Spoke to the traders- `...interviewed the traders from all parts but could not ascertain anything...'
4). Prepared two legions- `...eighty transports which Caesar considered sufficient for two legions...'
Problems:
1). Commius was captured ­ `...delivering Caesar's message...the natives arrested and bound him...'
2). Tides- Cavalry was swept back- `...such a violent storm arose that none of them could hold its
course...'
3). Difficult landing
4). Hostilities from tribes as well as changing attitudes- `...had sent forward their cavalry, and a
number of chariots which they are accustomed to use Kayput
in warfare...'…read more

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Extent of Success
Defeat of tribes:
`The defeated enemy, as soon as they rallied after their flight, hastened to send an
embassy to ask for peace, promising to give hostages and carry out Caesar's
commands.'
`He demanded twice as many hostages as before, and ordered those to be bought to
the continent...'
Awarded:
Upon return- `Senate decreed a public thanksgiving of twenty days'
First Roman General to reach Britain
Kayput…read more

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Second Invasion
Aims:
1). Same as the first invasion
2). Not all the tribes had sent hostages- Unfinished business?
3). Help Mandubracius of Trinovantes
Preparation:
1). This time prepared five legions- `Caesar took with him five legions and the remaining
two thousand cavalry...'
2). Redesigned the boats for easier beaching- `He specified the dimensions and shape of
the new ships. To enable them to be loaded quickly and beached easily...'
Problems:
1). Hostility of tribes,led by Cassivelaunus (King of the Catuvellauni)- `British forces has
now been assembled from all sides by Cassivellaunus'
2). Ships damaged in storm- `...could not cope with such a violent gale, so that many
vessels were disabled running foul of one another.'
3). The need to find grain Kayput…read more

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Success
Defeat:
Defeats the tribe and Catuvellauni- `Cassivellaunus alarmed by so many reverses, by the devastation of his
country...sent envoys to Caesar to obtain terms of surrender, employing Commius as an intermediary.'
Obtained hostages- `demanding hostages, fixing an annual tribute to be paid by the Britons to the Roman
government, and strictly forbidding Cassivelaunus to molest Mandubracius of the Trinovantes.'
A safe return to Gaul :D
Kayput…read more

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