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AQA Unit 4 Biology
Frihah Parvaiz

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Respiration releases
energy from organic

Aerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration in such detail as to show that
· glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and invol ves the oxidation
of glucose to pyruvate with a net gain of ATP and reduced NAD

Overview of glycolysis


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· pyruvate combines with coenzyme A in the link reaction to produce acetylcoenzyme A

Pyruvate is decarboxylated
NAD is reduced (it collects hydrogen
from pyruvate) changing it into acetate
Acetate combines with (CoA) to form
acetyl CoA
No ATP produced

· in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions the Krebs cycle…

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· synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation is associated with the transfer of electrons down
the electron transport chain and passage of protons across mitochondrial membranes.

Site of electron transport chain


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Anaerobic respiration
Glycolysis followed by the production of ethanol or lactate and the regeneration of NAD in anaerobic respiration.

The purpose of lactate
fermentation is to,
regenerate NAD, so
glycolysis is continued and
some ATP is produced to
continue some metabolic

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