AQA Phsyics PHY1 - Higher Tier

This are my revision notes for the First physics module.

PHY1 in the AQA exams

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AQA Physics PHY1
Heat Transfers
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Conduction ­
In solids
Energy of molecules stored as vibrations
Molecules bonded together so kinetic energy passes along
Metals are the best conductors as they have free electrons, which can move
around passing the energy along quicker.
Convection ­
Liquids and gases
Occurs when more energetic particles move from hot to cold
Hot air or water has lower density so rises.
Radiation ­
All bodies emit heat
Consists of electromagnetic waves
Constantly admitting and absorbing heat
Dark matt surfaces are good absorbers and emitters of heat.
Shiny surfaces are poor absorbers and emitters of heat.
Thermos Flask
1. Double walled with vacuum
Convection and Conduction
2. Silvered sides
Radiation
3. Support
Conduction
4. Stopper
Conduction and Convection
Heat Loss in a house
1. Loft insulation ­ made of fiber glass
Air between fibers stops conduction and radiation
2. Aluminum Foil ­ between radiator and wall
reflects heat away from wall stopping radiation
3. Cavity wall insulation
Conduction

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AQA Physics PHY1
4. Double-glazed windows ­ dry air in between is an insulator. Stops
convection and conduction
5. Draught proofing ­ foam around doors and windows
Stops convection
6. (Thick curtains ­ reduces heat loss through conduction and radiation)
S.A : VOLUME RATIO
Small objects have a large S.A: VOLUME ratio so they lose heat quicker
Large objects have a small S.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
Energy Efficiency
Conservation of energy- Energy is never made or destroyed. It only changes
from one form to another.
Most energy transfers involve some losses often has heat.
The less energy lost the more efficient a device is.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
Electrical Distribution
Nation grid = network of pylons and cables
It takes it from power stations to the places in need
You need a high current or a high voltage
High Current = loss of energy due to heat
Cheaper to have a higher voltage (400,000 V) and less current
Requires Tranformers:
Step up the voltage
Step down for safe use
POWER = CURRENT X VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE = CURRENT X RESISTANCE
The amount of electrical energy a device transforms depends on how…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
1. All 3 release carbon dioxide. Coal releases the most then oil and gas. All
this adds to the green house effect and contributes to climate change.
2. Coal release sulfur dioxide causing acid rain.
This is reduced by taking the sulfur out before its' burnt.
3. Coal- mining messes up the landscape
4. Oil spillages can occur
5. Nuclear waste is very dangerous and difficult to expose though it is
clean.
6.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
6. No power when wind stops. No means of increasing the supply.
7. Initial costs are high but no fuel costs and minimal running costs.
Solar
1. Solar cells create electricity directly from sunlight. Initial expensive. Ideal
for appliances not requiring much energy.
2. Remote places
3. No pollution
4. Only in daytime
5. Energy is free and running costs minimal
6. Solar panels are different. They heat water directly ­ no electricity
involved.
Hydroelectricity
1.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
Comparison of Energy resources
Coal and oil are running out but gas is not so power stations turning to gas
ones as they are quickest to set up.
Set up costs ­ Renewable need bigger station which are more expensive.
Set up time - affected by size, complexity and planning issues. Gas = quickest
Running/ Fuel costs ­ Renewable have the least as no fuel involved
Reliability ­ Renewable won't run out but dependant on weather that is
varies.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
Security Marker pens, anti theft dusk.
Gamma Ray X-Ray UV Visible Infrared Micro Wave Radio
All the different types of waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum.
EM waves can be absorbed, transmitted or reflected.
They react differently in different matters.
When it is absorbed the substance absorbing gets hotter or it sets up tiny
alternating currents with the same frequency.
COMMUNICATION
Radio Waves ­
Wave lengths longer than 10cm.…read more

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AQA Physics PHY1
These ions react easily with chemicals in our cells damaging our genes leading
to cancer.
A cell's genetic instructions go wrong.
X-rays - Firing a beam of electrons at a metal target makes X-rays.
As the electrons slow down in the target they give off kinetic energy as X-rays.
X-rays pass through flesh but not metal or bones.
Radiographers where lead aprons and stand behind a lead screen to minimize
exposure.…read more

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