AQA Chemistry Unit 2

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  • Created on: 21-04-11 16:42
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Wh at
i
s t
he
ge neral
st
ructur
e of
an
atom?
I
nt
h emi
d dl
eo f ana
t om, t
herei
sas
ma ll
nucl
eu sw
h i
chc
o n t
ainsp
arti
clesc
a l
ledn
u cl
eons(
pr
o t
onsa
n d
neutr
ons).
A
thi
rd t
ype
of
p ar
ti
cle
o r
bit
s t
h e
n ucl
eus and t
h ese ar
e cal
led el
ectrons.
Wh at
are
the r
e l
ati
ve charges of
t
h e
pa r
ti
cles
in an
a t
om?
Prot
on sh
a ve a r
elati
vec
h argeo
f +1a
n de
lectronsh
a veac
h ar
g eo
f 1, neutronsa
ren
e ut
ral and
t
heyd
o n't
ha veac
h ar
g e.
Sincea
n ya
to m contai
n se
q ual
amo untso
f prot
o nsa
n de
lectrons,
t
h eo
ve r
all
charge
is
e xact
ly
0.
Wh at
i
s t
he
atomic numb er?
Thea
tomi cn
u mbe r
i
sa lsoc
all
edt hep
ro t
onn
u mb er asi
tisthen
u mb er
of
protonsw
h icha
rei
na na
to m.
Ands
incea
l l
t
h ea
tomso f t
hes amee leme n t
havet
hes amen u mb er
of pr
otonsi
nt heir
nucl
eust heya
lso
have t
he same at
omic
numb er.
Wh at
i
s a
mo d el
of
an atom?
Onemo
d el
of
thea
t oms
iswh er
ew es howe lectr
on s
tobea rrangeda
ro undt
hen
u cleus
inshell
s ande
a ch
shel
l
representsad
i ff
erent
en er
g yl
evel
.
E l
ectrons
w i
tht
heir
nega t
iv
ec hargea
r ea
ttr
actedt
othep
o sit
ivel
y
chargedp
rotons
i
nth en
u cl
eus ands
ot
omo vea
ne l
ectront
oas he l
l
whichi
s f
urther
aw ay
fr
omt hen
u cleus
r
equ i
res
en ergy
to overcome the
a t
tr
acti
ve
force.
Wh at
i
s an energy l
evel?
Energyl
evel cano
n l
yh o l
dac
e rt
ainn
u mb er
of el
ectrons.
Th ef
i
rst
shell
holdsama
x i
mu m of
2e l
ectr
on s
andt
hena
l l
shell
sa
fter
that
w i
ll
hold8e
l ect
rons.
E l
eme ntsw
h osea
t oms
haveaf
ull
outer
energy
level
are
ver
ys
t abl
ea n dc
h emical
lyv
e r
yu
n reacti
ve. Thesea
r ec
all
e dt
hen
o bl
eg a ss
e ss
u cha
sh
e li
um, neona
n d
ar
go n.
How
w oul
d
w e
w r
it
e the
e l
ectr
o ni
c st
ructure
for
an elemen t
wit
h the
atomic numb er
of 15?
2.
8.5
How
is
the peri
odic
table
of el
eme nts
arranged?
Wec all
theh
o ri
zontal
rowso
f
thep
e ri
odict
ablep
e r
iodsa
n da
sw emo
v ea cross, eache
leme nt
haso
n e
moree
lectront
ha nt
hel
ast onea
t t
h eh
ighest
e nergy
level
. Wh enw
es tart
ane wp
e ri
odt
henw es tar
t
tofil
l
a
ne w energy
level
w i
th
electr
ons.
Thev
e rt
ical
column so
f t
h ep
e r
iodi
ct abl
ea rec
a l
ledg
r oupsa
n dt
hen
u mb er
o f
el
ec t
ronsa
na tom ha si
n
i
t'
so
u ter
she l
l
de t
erminest
hew
a yi
tbehavesi
nc
h emical r
eacti
on s.
Eleme nt
si
nt
hes
a meg ro uph
a ve
si
milar
propert
ies.
Wh y
do atoms
react?

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Page 2

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At
o msr
eact t
of
orm co mp oundss
ot hat
theyc
a nh
a vef
ull
outer
she l
lss
ot hat t
he yc
anb es tablea
n d
unr
e act
ivel
iket
hen
o bleg
a sses.
Th ey
cand ot
his
by shar
inge
l
ectrons
b y
co val
en t
bondingo
r t
ransferr
ing
el
ectrons
b y
ioni
c
bon di
ng .…read more

Page 3

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Some t
ime sy
o uc
a ns
e eme
t al
cryst
a l
so
nt hes
u rf
aceo
f
steel
w hichi
sd
ip pedi
nz
i nc(
tos
topi
tf
rom
r
usti
ng )
.G
a l
van i
sed s t
eel i
su
s ed to ma ke chann el
sf
o rc
a r
ryi
ngi nsulatede
l ectr
icw
i r
esa
n do th er
cont
ainers.…read more

Page 4

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Al
l
thea
t omsa reh
e l
dt
og et
he r
bys
trongc
o valent
b ondsa
n dt
hisg
ivest
hem pr
o pert
iess
u c
ha sb eing
ver
y hard and havi
ng
high melt
ing and
b oi
li
ng poi
nts and al
s o
be i
ng
chemicall
y ver
y
unreacti
ve.…read more

Page 5

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At
o mso
f t
h es
a mee leme nt havet
hes
a men u mb er of
prot
o nsb
u t
theyd
o n'
t al
w aysh
a vet
hes
a me
numb er
of neutr
onsa n dw
ec
a l
l t
he sei
sotopeso
f thes
a mee leme nt
, Thee
x t
ran
e utr
on si
nt
hen
u cleus
make
it
unst
ab l
e so t
hat i
t
is
radioa ct
ive…read more

Page 6

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At
fi
rst si
ncet
herea
reo n l
yr
eactant
st her
ateo
f thef
orw ar
dr eacti
oni sv
e ryg
r eat
bu t
t
h ena
smo
r e
pr
od uct
sg
e t
ma det
hiss
lowsd ow nu
n ti
l eventual
lyt
hep
r oduct
sb uil
du
ps omu
c ha
n dt
her
eact
antsa
re
used
u p
a nd
the r
e act
ion
reach es
eq ui
li
bri
u m.…read more

Page 7

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Ac
a t
alyst
i
sas ubstancew
h ichi
ncreasest
h er
ateo
f
ache mical
r
eacti
onw ithout
beingc
hemi cal
lyb
eing
af
fect
e di
tsel
f at
t
hee
n do
f t
her
e acti
o n.
Th eya
reo
f t
e ne
x pensi
veb
u t cheaper t
hant
op
a yf
or high
t
emp erat
u r
es or
pressu r
es as
w e can r
e use t
he m.…read more

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Wha t
t
emp eratures
are used i
n the
H aber
proces s?
Thef
orw ar
dr eacti
oni
se xothermics
ol
owt
emp erat
uresw
i l
l
g i
veah
i gh er
yi
eldb
u t
i
fit
'st
ool
owt hent
he
par
ti
clesw
o nt haveaf
ast
rateo
f r
e act
iona
sc olli
si
o nsw
ill
bel
e ssf
requent
andt hey
wo ul
dn't
haveah
igh
enough acti
vati
on energy so
w e…read more

Page 9

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What
is
a n
aqu eous
so l
uti
on?
Whenw
ed i ssol
veas
u b st
ancei
nw
a ter
w ema
k ea
na qu eouss
oluti
on.
T hes
o l
uti
onma
yb ea
c i
dic,
al
kal
ine or
neutr
a l
depending
o n
w hat
has been
d i
ssolved.
What
a r
e bases?
Basesa
rec
hemicalst
hat
cann eutral
isea
c i
ds.…read more

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