AQA Chemistry Unit 2

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Chemistry C2 Revision
Structures and Bonding
At
omi
c St
ruct
ure
I
nt
hemi
d dl
eo
f thea
tomst
herei
san ucl
eus
w hi
chc
o nt
ains
prot
ons andn
eut
rons
andt
het
hi
rdt
ypeo
f
par
ti
clei
na
na
t om
i
sa ne
lect
rona
ndi
to r
bit
st
hen
u cl
eus.
N eut
ronsh
aven
oc
har
ge,
prot
onsh
a vea
posi
ti
vec
h ar
geo
f +1a
nde
l ect
ronsh
a vean
e gati
vec
h argeo
f 1. Si
ncea
n ya
tom hasa
ne
q ual
number
of
protons
and el
ectr
ons t
here
is
no over
all
c
h ar
ge.
Wec
all
t
hen
u mb er
of
prot
onsi
nt
hen
ucleusi
tsa
t
omicn
u mber ands
i
ncea
ll
at
omso
f thes
ame
el
ement
have
the
same number
of
prot
ons
in
the
nucl
eus
they
also
have
the
same
atomi
c number
.
The
arr
angement
of
el
ect
rons
in
atoms
Thee
lect
ronsi
na
na tom area
rrangedi
ne
nergyl
evel
s/shell
s.
Ane nergyl
evel
cano
nl
y hol
dac
ert
ain
number
o f
el
ectrons,
t
hel
ow est
ener
gy
level
canh
oldo
n l
y
twoe
l
e ct
rons
andt
hena
ll
shel
ls
aft
er
that
f
il
l
upt
o8e
le ct
rons.
Elementst
hat
haveaf
ull
out
e r
ener
g yl
evel
arev
erys
tabl
ea
n du
nreact
ivea
ndt
hey
ar
e cal
led
the nobl
e gases
such as
hel
ium,
neon and ar
g on.
Thea
t
omicn
umber
of
ane
l
eme nt
t
ell
su
sh
owma
n ye
lect
rons
ther
ea
rei
nits
atoms,
andf
or
exampl
e
car
bonh
asa
na
t
omicn
u mber
of
6me ani
ngi
thass
ixe
l
ectronsa
ndi
t
se
lect
roni
cs
t
ructur
ew
o uldb
e
2,
4
Wec all
t
heh
o ri
zontal
rowso
f thep
e r
iodict
abl
ep eri
ods,
a sw
emo
v ea
crossap
e ri
odo f
thet
abl
e
eache
leme nt
haso
nemo
r ee
l
e ct
roni
nit
s hi
g hest
ener
gy l
evel
thant
h eo
neb
e f
orei
t
.Wh enw
es tar
t
a
new peri
od,
ane we
n er
gyl
evel
al
sos
t art
st
of
i
ll
wi
the
lectr
ons. Wec
a l
l
thev
e r
ti
cal
columnso
f t
he
per
iodi
c t
ableg
roups
a nds
incet
hec
he mical
proper
ti
es of
ane
lement
dependo
nh
o wma
n y
elect
rons
i
t
ha si
ni
tso
uter
shell
, al
l
thee
l emen t
si
nt
hes
a meg
r ouph
a ves
imil
ar chemical
proper
ti
esa
n d
behave
simil
arl
y i
n chemical
r
e act
ions.
Chemi
cal
Bondi
ng
El
eme nt
sf
orm compoundsb
yr
e act
ingw
it
ho
t her
el
emen t
s.
T heyc
and
ot
hi
se
i
ther
bye
i
ther
shar
ing
el
ect
rons
(coval
ent
bondi
ng)
or
tr
ansfer
ri
ng
elect
rons
(i
oni
c bondi
ng).
I
ni
onicb
ondi
ngt
hea
tomsi nvol
vedl
oseo
r
gaine
l
ectrons
sot
hat
t
hey
haveas
tabl
ee
lect
roni
c
str
uctur
ea
nd
af
ul
l
outer
ener
g yl
evel
.
Wec a l
l
thec
hargedp
art
icl
es
ions.
Whena
toms
react
t
oget
her
tofor
mi
o ni
c
bonds
some l
ose
elect
rons
a nd
other
s gai
n el
ectr
ons.
I
oni
c Bondi
ng
Thei
onst
hat ar
ef
or
me da
r eh
e l
dt
oe
a cho
ther
bye
n ormo usl
ys
trongf
orcedo
f att
ract
ionb
e t
w eent
he
opposi
tel
yc
hargedi
onsa
n dt
hise
lect
rost
ati
cf
orceo
f at
tr
acti
o nt
hat
actsi
nall
di
rect
ionsi
scall
edt
h ei
oni
c
bond.
Thei
oni
cb
o ndsb
e t
w eent
hec
h ar
gedp art
icl
esr
esult
si
na na
r r
angeme nt
of
ionst
hat
wec
a ll
agiant
s
truct
ure.T
h ef
or
cee
x ert
edb
ya ni ono
na
l l
ot
her
ionsi
se qual
ina
ll
di
rect
ionsi
nt
hel
at
ti
ces
ot his
iswhy
i
onsi
nag
i ant st
ruct
urea
r eh
e l
dt
oget
her ver
ys
trongly.
Theg
i ant
st
ructur
eo
f
ioni
cc
o mpound si
sv
e r
y
r
egular
and
thi
s i
s because
all
t
he i
ons pack
very
neatl
y t
ogether.
Coval
ent
Bondi
ng

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Page 2

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Whenn
o n metal
sr
eact t
ogether
t
he ys
haree
lect
ronst
of
orm molecul
esa
ndw
ec
al
l
t
his
covalent
bonding.…read more

Page 3

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Wea
lsof
i
ndc
a r
boni
nt hef
or
mo fgr
aph i
teb
e si
des
diamon da
ndi
ngraphi
tet
hec
arbona
toms ar
ea
rranged
i
ng
iant
layer
s andt
herea
rew
e ak
forces
betw eent
hel
a yer
s whi
chme
a nt
hat
they
cans
li
deo
ver eacho
ther
qui
tee
a si
l
y.…read more

Page 4

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Ammo niai
sa
ni
mp or
tant
che mical
f
or makingo
ther chemicalsi
ncludi
ngf
er
ti
li
sers.
TheH a ber
P r
oc ess
pr
ovidesu
sw it
haw
a yo
f t
urningt
hen
it
rogeni
nthea
ir
toa mmo ni
aa ndw
eg e t
then
it
rogenf
r
omt hea
ir
an d
t
heH
y drogenf
rom natur
al
ga sw
h i
chc
on t
ainsma
inlyme
th ane.…read more

Page 5

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Ar
eacti
onw
h eree
ner
gyi
st
ransf
err
edt
ot
her
eact
ings
ubst
ancesi
sc
al
leda
ne
n dot
her
micr
eact
iona
nd
phot
osynthesi
si
sendot
her
mica
n ds
oi
sther
mal
decomposi
ti
on(
whens
ubstancesa
r
eb
rokend
ownu
s i
ng
heat
).…read more

Page 6

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Aci
ds
and
Bases
When we di
ssol
ve a
substance
in
w at
er
w e
ma ke
an aqueous
sol
uti
on.
The
sol
uti
on
may be
a ci
dic,
al
kal
ine
or
neut
ral
dependi
ng on
w hat
has
bee n
dis
s ol
ved.
Bases
are
chemical
s whi
ch
can
neut
ral
ise
acids
and
al
kal
is
are
bases
that
dissol
ve
in
w at
er.
Pure wat
er
is
neutr
al.…read more

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