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Zaynab Patel 10ND

Chemistry 1 Specification:

C1.1: Fundamental Ideas In Chemistry
Atoms and elements are the building blocks of chemistry. Atoms contain
protons, neutrons and electrons. When elements react they produce

C1.1.1: Atoms
a) All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

b) The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases.
They are unreactive because their atoms have stable arrangement of
electrons. Candidates should know that the noble gases have 8 electrons in
their outer shell except for helium, which has 2 electrons.…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal
decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium
decompose on heating in a similar way
Knowledge and understanding of metal carbonates is limited to metal
carbonates decomposing on…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

Knowledge of specific examples is not required. Data may be provided in
examination questions for candidates to analyse.
b) Ores are mined and may be concentrated before the metal is
extracted and purified.
Knowledge of specific examples other than those given below is not
c) Unreactive…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

Candidates do not need to know the details of methods used to extract
these metals, but should be able to comment on and evaluate
information that is given about the chemical processes that can be used.
j) We should recycle metals because extracting them uses limited

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

C1.4 Crude oil and Fuels
Crude oil is derived from an ancient biomass found in rock. Many useful
materials can be produced from crude oil. Crude oil can be fractionally
distilled. Some of the fractions can be used as fuels. Biofuels are produced from
plant material. There…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

are required, other than the fact that they are formed at high temperature.
Solid particles may contain soot (carbon) and unburnt fuels.
b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During
combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised.
c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

Candidates should be able to recognize alkenes from their names or
formulae, but do not need to know the names of individual alkenes, other
than ethene and propene.
c) Unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules can be represented in the following
Candidates should know that in displayed structures…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

Knowledge is limited to the high-energy content of vegetable oils, the
possible health benefits of unsaturated fats compared with saturated
fats, and the effects of cooking foods in oil. Information may be
provided in examinations for candidates to evaluate.
Evaluate the use, benefits, drawbacks and risks of…

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Zaynab Patel 10ND

hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room
temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries.
Candidates should know how and why vegetable oils are hardened for use in
foods. Knowledge of trans fats is not required. Examination questions may…


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