aqa chemistry c1 gcse specification typed out

specification syllabus for c1 aqa gcse

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Zaynab Patel 10ND
Chemistry 1 Specification:
C1.1: Fundamental Ideas In Chemistry
Atoms and elements are the building blocks of chemistry. Atoms contain
protons, neutrons and electrons. When elements react they produce
compounds.
C1.1.1: Atoms
a) All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one
sort of atom is called an element. There are about 100 different
elements. Elements are shown in the periodic table. The groups contain
elements with similar properties. Candidates should understand where
metals and non-metals appear in the periodic table.
b) Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol, e.g. O
represents an atom of oxygen, and Na represents an atom of sodium.
Knowledge of the chemical symbols for elements other than those named in
the specification is not required.
c) Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and
neutrons and around which there are electrons.
d) The relative electrical charges are as shown:
Name of Charge
particle
Proton +1
Neutron 0
Electron -1
e) In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in
the nucleus. Atoms have no overall electrical charge.
f) All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons.
Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons.
g) The number of protons in an atom of an element is its atomic number.
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is its mass number.
Candidates will be expected to calculate the number of each sub-atomic
particle in an atom from its atomic number and mass number.
h) Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at
a particular energy level (in a particular shell). The electrons in an atom
occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells).
Candidates may answer questions in terms of either energy levels or shells.
Candidates should be able to represent the electronic structure of the first
20 elements of the periodic table.
C1.1.2: The Periodic Table
a) Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number
of electrons in their highest energy level (outer electrons) and this
gives them similar chemical properties. Knowledge is limited to the
reactions of Group 1 elements with water and oxygen. Candidates are not
required to know of trends within each group in the periodic table, but
should be aware of similarities between the elements within a group.

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Zaynab Patel 10ND
b) The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases.
They are unreactive because their atoms have stable arrangement of
electrons. Candidates should know that the noble gases have 8 electrons in
their outer shell except for helium, which has 2 electrons.
C1.1.3 Chemical Reactions
a) When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form
compounds. This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form
ions or molecules. Compounds formed from metals consist of ions.…read more

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b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal
decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium
decompose on heating in a similar way
Knowledge and understanding of metal carbonates is limited to metal
carbonates decomposing on heating to give carbon dioxide and the metal oxide.
Candidates should be aware that not all carbonates of metals in Group 1 of the
periodic table decompose at the temperatures reached by a Bunsen burner.…read more

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Knowledge of specific examples is not required. Data may be provided in
examination questions for candidates to analyse.
b) Ores are mined and may be concentrated before the metal is
extracted and purified.
Knowledge of specific examples other than those given below is not
required.
c) Unreactive metals such as gold are found in the Earth as the metal
itself but most metals are found as compounds that require chemical
reactions to extract the metal.…read more

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Candidates do not need to know the details of methods used to extract
these metals, but should be able to comment on and evaluate
information that is given about the chemical processes that can be used.…read more

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Zaynab Patel 10ND
C1.4 Crude oil and Fuels
Crude oil is derived from an ancient biomass found in rock. Many useful
materials can be produced from crude oil. Crude oil can be fractionally
distilled. Some of the fractions can be used as fuels. Biofuels are produced from
plant material. There are advantages and disadvantages to their use as fuels.
Fuels can come from renewable or non-renewable resources.…read more

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Zaynab Patel 10ND
are required, other than the fact that they are formed at high temperature.
Solid particles may contain soot (carbon) and unburnt fuels.
b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During
combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised.
c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide
causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming.
Candidates are not required to know details of any other causes of acid rain
or global warming.…read more

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Candidates should be able to recognize alkenes from their names or
formulae, but do not need to know the names of individual alkenes, other
than ethene and propene.
c) Unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules can be represented in the following
forms:
C3H6
Candidates should know that in displayed structures = represents a double bond.
d) Alkenes react with bromine water, turning it from orange to colourless.
e) Some of the products of cracking are useful as fuels
C1.5.…read more

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Knowledge is limited to the high-energy content of vegetable oils, the
possible health benefits of unsaturated fats compared with saturated
fats, and the effects of cooking foods in oil. Information may be
provided in examinations for candidates to evaluate.
Evaluate the use, benefits, drawbacks and risks of emulsifiers in
foods
Candidates do not need to recall the names of specific additives.
Further information will be provided in questions for evaluation and
comparison.
C1.6.…read more

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hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room
temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries.
Candidates should know how and why vegetable oils are hardened for use in
foods. Knowledge of trans fats is not required. Examination questions may
provide further information from which candidates may be asked to make
comparisons.
C1.7 Changes in the Earth and its Atmosphere
The earth and its atmosphere provide everything we need. The Earth has a
layered structure.…read more

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