AQA Biology txt book: Heart and heart disease - questions & answers included (with some common exam questions as well)

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Preview of AQA Biology txt book: Heart and heart disease - questions & answers included (with some common exam questions as well)

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Heart and heart disease
Heart and Heart disease
Summary question
Pg.89 topic 5.1
What is the name of the blood vessel that supplies the heart muscle with
oxygenated blood?
Coronary artery
State whether the blood in each of the following structures is oxygenated or
a) Vena cava
b) Pulmonary artery
c) Left atrium
List the correct sequence of four main blood vessels and four heart chambers that a
red blood cell passes through on its journey from the lungs, though the heart and
body, and back again to the lungs.
Pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, vena cava, right atrium, right
ventricle, pulmonary artery
Suggest why it is important to prevent mixing of the blood in the two sides of the
The mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood would result in only partially
oxygenated blood reaching the tissues and lungs. This would mean the supply of
oxygen to the tissues would be inadequate and there would be a reduced diffusion
gradient in the lungs, limiting the rate of oxygen uptake.
Pg. 93 topic 5.2
Which chamber of the heart produces the greatest pressure?
Left ventricle
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.
a) The left and right ventricles contract together
b) Heart muscles is myogenic
c) Semi-lunar valves occur between the atria and ventricles
d) The wave of electrical activity from the atrioventricular node is conveyed along
the bundle of his.
e) The wave of electrical activity from the sinoatrial node directly causes the
ventricles to contract.

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Heart and heart disease
In each case, name the structure being described.
a) On contraction it forces blood into the ventricles
b) It acts as the heart's pacemaker.
Sinoatrial node
c) It relays a wave of excitation to the apex of the heart.
Bundle of his
After a period of training, the heart rate is often decreased when at rest although the
cardiac output is unchanged. Suggest an explanation for this.…read more

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Heart and heart disease
determined by the heart itself [5]
d) An interventricular septal defect is an opening in the wall (septum) that separates
the left and right ventricles. Suggest and explain the effect of this defect on
blood flow through the heart [2]
4c) explain how smoking and a high blood cholesterol concentration increase the risk
of developing coronary heart disease [6]
Pg. 85
Q.1 Muscular walls of the ventricles are much thicker than the walls of atria.…read more

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Heart and heart disease
Fatty streaks/deposits adhere to the wall of arteries;
Narrows lumen of artery;
Damages endothelium;
Can lead to the formation of thrombus/blood clot;
Describe how atheroma can lead to an aneurysm. [2]
Weakens artery walls;
So that it swells/burst;
Explain how you would calculate the magnification. [1]
Magnification = measured diameter/actual length
Give two ways in which the artery of a person with atheroma differs from the artery
of a healthy person.…read more

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Heart and heart disease
Receptor site for adrenaline/moradrenaline/stops adrenaline/noradrenaline binding;
Describe how an atheroma is formed and how it can lead to a myocardial infraction.…read more

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Heart and heart disease
Cigarette smoking and a diet high in saturated fat increase the risk of myocardial
infarction. Explain why.…read more


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