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Atomic structure Amount of substance
Isotopes: atoms with the same number of protons but A mole of a substance is the amount of that substance
different numbers of neutrons that contains the same number of particles as there are
Relative isotopic mass: the ratio of the mass of one atom…

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remove an electron that is attracted to the positive The strength of metals depends on the charge on the ion
nucleus X+(g) X2+(g) + e- (greater electrostatic forces) and the size of the ion
(smaller, electrons closer to nucleus). They are malleable
and ductile and have high boiling/melting points due…

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In industry there is more demand for shorter chained NOx ­ produced in car engines, at high temps, or sparks
hydrocarbons so longer chains are broken down to occur. They react with O2 in the air to make nitric acid
produce useful materials e.g. petrol, polymers, drugs and causing smog.…

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